New Reports/Publications



The Power of Integration to Multiply Development Impact. 2016. In this brief, we describe the WASHplus approach to integration for enhanced health and development impact.                                       
The Science of Habit: Creating Disruptive and Sticky Behavior Change in Handwashing Behavior, 2015. In this paper, we propose that the “science of habit” can partly explain the challenge of handwashing behavior change.
CLTS-Plus: Value-Added Sanitation Programming, 2015. This Learning Brief describes the different components WASHplus uses when implementing CLTS activities and illustrates how and why they have been applied to CLTS in various country programs.
A Teacher’s Guide to Integrating WASH in School, 2015.This guide supports the teaching and learning about water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in Zambian primary schools and provides technical content for the teacher to familiarize himself/herself with the subject of WASH, including suggestions on how WASH content can be integrated into the classroom.
School WASH Facilities: Operations and Maintenance Guidelines, 2015. This manual addresses the key O&M tasks necessary to ensure the smooth functioning of school WASHE services and the longevity of related hardware. It covers these key aspects of O&M and includes related tools.
WASHing Away Worms and Other Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2015. Although mass drug administration is key to reducing NTDs, reinfection will remain a problem if WASH behaviors are not addressed. WASHplus is documenting the links between WASH and NTDs and exploring ways to integrate WASH into NTD programs.
Small Doable Actions: A Feasible Approach to Behavior Change Learning Brief, August 2015. A small doable action is a behavior that, when practiced consistently and correctly, will lead to personal and public health improvement. It is considered feasible by the householder, from HIS/HER point of view, considering the current practice, the available resources, and the particular social context.
Integrating WASH and Nutrition Learning Brief, June 2015. Since 2010, the USAID-funded WASHplus project has been engaged both at the global and country levels in stimulating the discussion and improving the evidence base around integrating WASH into nutrition programming, sharing experiences and approaches to integrating the two sectors. This Learning Brief describes WASHplus country activities in Bangladesh, Mali and Uganda, global knowledge sharing efforts and other WASHplus activities.
Baseline Survey of Peri-Urban Sanitation and Hygiene in Cotonou, Abomey-Calavi, and Porto-Novo, Benin, 2015. Information will help develop a strategy to improve water supply and sanitation as well as hygiene practices, which will lead to the improvement of the health status of poor households in urban areas. It is in this context that this household survey was implemented in three peri-urban areas of the cities of Cotonou, Abomey-Calavi, and Porto-Novo to generate the information needed to design such a strategy.
Exploring the Potential of Schoolchildren as Change Agents in the Context of School WASH in Rural Zambia: Final Report, 2014.In this study, researchers explored the potential for children to be change agents for behavior change and technology adoption in their households. The work was conducted in the context of a school-based WASH program, SPLASH, funded by USAID| Zambia and managed by the USAID WASHplus project. 
Integrating WASH into HIV Interventions and Advancing Improved Sanitation Uptake: WASHplus Kenya End of Project Report, 2014. (pdf, 1.3MB) - USAID’s WASHplus project helped communities and households in Kenya make the connection between improved sanitation, healthy hygiene habits, and positive outcomes for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV), their families, children, the elderly, and other vulnerable households.
Cooking Should Nurture, Not Kill, 2014. 4 million people die prematurely every year due to smoke exposure from traditional cooking fires.This is more than the deaths from malaria, tuberculosis,and HIV/AIDS combined. The use of clean, reliable, affordable, efficient, and safe home cooking practices reduces exposure to household air pollution.
Menstrual Hygiene Management Mini-Toolbox for Teachers and Schools in Zambia, 2015. SPLASH (Schools Promoting Learning Achievement through Sanitation and Hygiene) Project. Menstrual Hygiene Management or MHM is an important component of a “WASH Friendly School”. As it is a new concept in schools, SPLASH is offering various kinds of support to teachers to help set up MHM programs and facilities to help keep girls and female teachers in school.

WASHplus Annual Report

Publications by Country


  • Integrating WASH into NTD Programs: Bangladesh Country Assessment, 2013. Bangladesh Country Assessment The assessment’s purpose was to examine the existing WASH policy and program context in Bangladesh and identify potential points of intersection for WASH and STH which, with investment, could improve the potential for reduced worm reinfection. 
  • What Do Cooks Want? What Will They Pay? A Study of Improved Cookstoves in Bangladesh, 2014. WASHplus Technical Brief. As the evidence base linking improved cookstoves (ICS) with positive health and energy impacts grows, so does attention on to how best to influence household uptake and consistent and correct use. WASHplus conducted a comprehensive assessment to better understand consumer needs and preferences as they relate to increasing the uptake of ICS in Bangladesh, including household trials of improved stoves.
  • Understanding Consumer Preference and Willingness to Pay for Improved Cookstoves in Bangladesh, 2013. J Rosenbaum, et al. This study uses qualitative and quantitative methods that draw from social marketing and social science to explore consumer perceptions of five of the most promising ICS potentially available for distribution in Bangladesh. The study complements other efforts by a range of stakeholders to strengthen market‐based approaches and consumer choice for improving household air quality and reducing the environmental impacts associated with dependence on biomass fuels. 




Publications by Topic

Fecal Sludge Management

WASH & Neglected Tropical Diseases Integration

  • Integrating WASH into NTD Programs: A Desk Review, 2013. (pdf, 1MB) - This desk review clearly indicates that the international community recognizes that drug administration alone is insufficient to break the cycle of disease transmission. Although past programs have largely left out a WASH component, the current renewed interest in securing WASH to any global NTD control or elimination strategy and adding WASH interventions to NTD treatment programs is essential to achieving sustained control and elimination.

WASH & Nutrition Integration

  • Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Essential Components for Food Security, 2013. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions play critical roles in achieving the major goals of the U.S. Government’s global hunge and food security initiative, Feed the Future, which targets the root causes of hunger, poverty, and undernutrition, especially for women and children.
  • Integrating Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene into Nutrition Programming, 2013. WASHplus.
    Diarrhea, pneumonia and birth complications are the top three killers of children under age 5 worldwide. Diarrhea is also a leading cause of undernutrition in this age group and one-third to one-half of all child mortality cases are linked to undernutrition. If mothers and other caregivers used basic hygiene practices and had better access to safe water and adequate sanitation this could greatly reduce under 5 deaths and improve child nutrition.
  • Integration de l'Eau, l'Assainissement, et l'Hygiene (WASH) dans les Programmes de Nutrition, 2013. WASHplus.
    La diarrhée, la pneumonie et les complications à la naissance sont les trois principales causes de mortalité des enfants de moins de 5 ans dans le monde entier. Chaque année, la diarrhée provoque la mort de 760.000 enfants de moins de 5 ans (11 pourcent de la mortalité de l’enfant). La diarrhée est également l’une des principales causes de malnutrition dans ce groupe d’âge et d’un tiers à la moitié de tous les cas de mortalité infantile sont liés à la malnutrition.


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