Household Drinking Water Quality Updates

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Need for certification of household water treatment products: examples from Haiti

10 December 2014 11:09 (America/New_York)

Need for certification of household water treatment products: examples from Haiti. Trop Med Int Health. 2014 Dec 1. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12445.

Authors: Murray A1, Pierre-Louis J, Joseph F, Sylvain G, Patrick M, Lantagne D. Author information: 1Tufts University Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department.Medford, MA, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate four chemical treatment products currently seeking approval in Haiti.

METHODS: Household water treatment (HWT) products were evaluated at the certification process validation stage by verifying international product certifications confirming treatment efficacy and reviewing laboratory efficacy data against WHO HWT microbiological performance targets; and at the approval stage by confirming product composition, evaluating treated water chemical content against national and international drinking water quality guidelines, and reviewing packaging for dosing ability and usage directions in Creole.

RESULTS: None of the four evaluated products fulfilled validation or approval stage requirements. None was certified by an international agency as efficacious for drinking water treatment, and none had data demonstrating its ability to meet WHO HWT performance targets. All product sample compositions differed from labeled composition by >20%, and no packaging included complete usage directions in Creole.

CONCLUSIONS: Product manufacturers provided information that was inapplicable, did not demonstrate product efficacy, and was insufficient to ensure safe product use. Capacity building is needed with country regulatory agencies to objectively evaluate HWT products. Products should be internationally assessed against WHO performance targets and also locally approved, considering language, culture, and usability, to ensure effective HWT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Influence of solar water disinfection on immunity against cholera

10 December 2014 11:04 (America/New_York)

Influence of solar water disinfection on immunity against cholera – a review. Journal of Water and Health Vol 12 No 3 pp 393–398 2014.

Authors: Cornelius Cano Ssemakalu, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa, Keolebogile Shirley Motaung and Michael Pillay.
Faculty of Applied and Computer Sciences, Vaal University of Technology, Vanderbijlpark 1900, South Africa E-mail: mpillay@vut.ac.za. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Natural Resource and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia Campus, Pretoria 0001, South Africa

Cholera remains a problem in developing countries. This is attributed to the unavailability of proper water treatment, sanitary infrastructure and poor hygiene. As a consequence, countries facing cholera outbreaks rely on interventions such as the use of oral rehydration therapy and antibiotics to save lives. In addition to vaccination, the provision of chlorine tablets and hygiene sensitization drives have been used to prevent new cholera infections. The implementation of these interventions remains a challenge due to constraints associated with the cost, ease of use and technical knowhow. These challenges have been reduced through the use of solar water disinfection (SODIS). The success of SODIS in mitigating the risk associated with the consumption of waterborne pathogens has been associated with solar irradiation. This has prompted a lot of focus on the solar component for enhanced disinfection. However, the role played by the host immune system following the consumption of solar-irradiated water pathogens has not received any significant attention. The mode of inactivation resulting from the exposure of microbiologically contaminated water results in immunologically important microbial states as well as components. In this review, the possible influence that solar water disinfection may have on the immunity against cholera is discussed.

A novel point-of-use water treatment method by antimicrobial nanosilver textile material

10 December 2014 10:58 (America/New_York)

A novel point-of-use water treatment method by antimicrobial nanosilver textile material. J Water Health. 2014 Dec;12(4):670-7. doi: 10.2166/wh.2014.197.

Liu H1, Tang X2, Liu Q3. Author information: 1Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine and Immuno-Engineering of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004, China E-mail: hjliu@henu.edu.cn; AGplus Technologies Pte Ltd, 10 Jalan Besar #10-06 Sim Lim Tower, Singapore 208787.
2AGplus Technologies Pte Ltd, 10 Jalan Besar #10-06 Sim Lim Tower, Singapore 208787.
3School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Singapore Polytechnic, 500 Dover Road, Singapore 139651.

Pathogenic bacteria are one of the main reasons for worldwide water-borne disease causing a big threat to public health, hence there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective water treatment technologies. Nano-materials in point-of-use systems have recently attracted considerable research and commercial interests as they can overcome the drawbacks of traditional water treatment techniques. We have developed a new point-of-use water disinfection kit with nanosilver textile material. The silver nanoparticles were in-situ generated and immobilized onto cotton textile, followed by fixing to a plastic tube to make a water disinfection kit. By soaking and stirring the kit in water, pathogenic bacteria have been killed within minutes. The silver leaching from the kit was insignificant, with values <100 ppb – the current US EPA and WHO limit for silver level in drinking water. Herein, the nanosilver textile water disinfection kit could be a new, efficient and cost-effective point-of-use water treatment method for rural areas and emergency preparedness.

Assessing point-of-use ultraviolet disinfection for safe water in urban developing communities

10 December 2014 10:56 (America/New_York)

Assessing point-of-use ultraviolet disinfection for safe water in urban developing communities. J Water Health. 2014 Dec;12(4):663-9. doi: 10.2166/wh.2014.223.

Barstow CK1, Dotson AD2, Linden KG1. Author information 1Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA E-mail: karl.linden@colorado.edu.
2Civil Engineering, University of Alaska, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA.

Residents of urban developing communities often have a tap in their home providing treated and sometimes filtered water but its microbial quality cannot be guaranteed. Point-of-use (POU) disinfection systems can provide safe drinking water to the millions who lack access to clean water in urban communities. While many POU systems exist, there are several concerns that can lead to low user acceptability, including low flow rate, taste and odor issues, high cost, recontamination, and ineffectiveness at treating common pathogens. An ultraviolet (UV) POU system was constructed utilizing developing community-appropriate materials and simple construction techniques based around an inexpensive low-wattage, low pressure UV bulb.

The system was tested at the bench scale to characterize its hydrodynamic properties and microbial disinfection efficacy. Hydraulically the system most closely resembled a plug flow reactor with minor short-circuiting. The system was challenge tested and validated for a UV fluence of 50 mJ/cm(2) and greater, over varying flow rates and UV transmittances, corresponding to a greater than 4 log reduction of most pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa of public health concern. This study presents the designed system and testing results to demonstrate the potential architecture of a low-cost, open-source UV system for further prototyping and field-testing.

Comparison of Three Household Water Treatment Technologies in San Mateo Ixtatán, Guatemala

2 December 2014 10:38 (America/New_York)

Comparison of Three Household Water Treatment Technologies in San Mateo Ixtatán, GuatemalaJ. Environ. Eng. , 2014,  10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000914 , 04014085.

Mellor, J., Kallman, E., Oyanedel-Craver, V., and Smith, J.

Silver-impregnated ceramic water filters (CWFs) are a simple and sustainable low-cost technology that has shown promise in improving household drinking water quality and reducing incidences of early childhood diarrhea in a variety of settings. Despite this promise, lower reservoir contamination is thought to be a contributing factor to the decline in the effectiveness being seen over time. A novel silver-impregnated ceramic torus that can be placed in the lower reservoir was designed to minimize this contamination.

This study uses a one-year randomized trial to compare the relative effectiveness of the CWF+torus design with a standard CWF and point-of-use chlorination. The effectiveness of each technology was measured at project inception and subsequently after six and 12 months. Results indicate that the toruses, as designed, are not able to consistently maintain lower-reservoir silver concentrations above those of the simple CWF design and are hence unable to prevent contamination. Furthermore, after six months, only 65% of households that used point-of-use chlorination maintained sufficient chlorine levels above the 0.2  mg/L needed to be effective.

All three technologies showed statistically equivalent log removal efficiencies for total coliform bacteria and all three declined in effectiveness over the first six months. Combined average log removal efficiencies for all three technologies ranged from 2.22±0.21 initially but declined to 1.45±0.35 after six months and to 1.42±0.29 after one year.

Fouling in hollow fiber membrane microfilters used for household water treatment

2 December 2014 10:34 (America/New_York)

Fouling in hollow fiber membrane microfilters used for household water treatmentJournal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, In Press,  2014 | doi:10.2166/washdev.2014.206

Authors: Anna Murray, Mario Goeb, Barbara Stewart, Catherine Hopper, Jamin Peck, Carolyn Meub, Ayse Asatekin and Daniele Lantagne

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, 200 College Avenue, Medford, MA 02155, USA E-mail: anna.murray@tufts.edu
Pure Water for the World, Trojes, Honduras
Department of Chemistry, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA
Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA
Pure Water for the World, Rutland, VT, USA
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA

The Sawyer PointOne hollow fiber membrane microfilter is promoted for household water treatment in developing countries. Critical limitations of membrane filtration are reversible and irreversible membrane fouling, managed by backwashing and chemical cleaning, respectively. The PointOne advertised lifespan is 10 years; users are instructed to backwash as maintenance. Owing to reduced turbidity and bacterial removal efficiencies, six PointOnes were removed from Honduran homes after 23 months of use. In the laboratory, we tested sterile water filtrate for turbidity and bacterial presence before and after backwashing and chemical cleaning. Sterile water filtrate from uncleaned filters had turbidity of 144–200 NTU and bacteria counts of 13–200 CFU. Cleaned filter effluent was positive for total coliforms.

On one new and one used, cleaned filter, we imaged membranes with scanning electron microscopy and characterized surface elemental compositions with spectroscopy. Images and spectroscopy of the used, cleaned membrane revealed a dense, cake fouling layer consisting of inorganic metal oxides, organic material, and biofouling. Burst fibers were visually observed. This PointOne was thus irreversibly fouled and non-functional after <2 years of use. Further research is recommended to determine: impacts of source water quality on PointOne performance, a cleaning regimen to manage fouling, and an appropriate filter lifespan.

Porous Ceramic Tablet Embedded with Silver Nanopatches for Low-Cost Point-of-Use Water Purification

1 December 2014 14:14 (America/New_York)

Porous Ceramic Tablet Embedded with Silver Nanopatches for Low-Cost Point-of-Use Water Purification. Environ. Sci. Technol., November 11, 2014

Beeta Ehdaie , Carly Krause , and James A. Smith *

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904,

Email: *J. A. Smith. E-mail: jas9e@virginia.edu.

This work describes a novel method to embed silver in ceramic porous media in the form of metallic silver nanopatches. This method has been applied to develop a new POU technology, a silver-infused ceramic tablet that provides long-term water disinfection. The tablet is fabricated using clay, water, sawdust, and silver nitrate. When dropped into a household water storage container, the ceramic tablet releases silver ions at a controlled rate that in turn disinfect microbial pathogens. Characterization of the silver-embedded ceramic media was performed using transmission electron microscopy. Spherical-shaped patches of metallic silver were observed at 1–6 nm diameters and confirmed to be silver with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Disinfection experiments in a 10 L water volume demonstrated a 3 log reduction of Escherichia coli within 8 h while silver levels remained below the World Health Organization drinking water standard (0.1 mg/L). Silver release rate varied with clay mineralogy, sawdust particle size, and initial silver mass. Silver release was repeatable for daily 10 L volumes for 154 days. Results suggest the ceramic tablet can be used to treat a range of water volumes. This technology shows great potential to be a low-cost, simple-to-use water treatment method to provide microbiologically safe drinking water at the household level.

Comparing Willingness to Pay for Improved Drinking-Water Quality Using Stated Preference Methods in Rural and Urban Kenya

1 December 2014 14:10 (America/New_York)

Comparing Willingness to Pay for Improved Drinking-Water Quality Using Stated Preference Methods in Rural and Urban Kenya. Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2014 Nov 8.

Brouwer R1, Job FC, van der Kroon B, Johnston R.
Author information
1Department of Environmental Economics, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, r.brouwer@vu.nl.

BACKGROUND: Access to safe drinking water has been on the global agenda for decades. The key to safe drinking water is found in household water treatment and safe storage systems.
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assessed rural and urban household demand for a new gravity-driven membrane (GDM) drinking-water filter.
METHODS: A choice experiment (CE) was used to assess the value attached to the characteristics of a new GDM filter before marketing in urban and rural Kenya. The CE was followed by a contingent valuation (CV) question. Differences in willingness to pay (WTP) for the same filter design were tested between methods, as well as urban and rural samples.
RESULTS: The CV follow-up approach produces more conservative and statistically more efficient WTP values than the CE, with only limited indications of anchoring. The effect of the new filter technology on children with diarrhea is among the most important drivers behind choice behavior and WTP in both areas. The urban sample is willing to pay more in absolute terms than the rural sample irrespective of the valuation method. Rural households are more price sensitive, and willing to pay more in relative terms compared with disposable household income.
CONCLUSION: A differentiated marketing strategy across rural and urban areas is expected to increase uptake and diffusion of the new filter technology.

Carbon Financing of Household Water Treatment: Background, Operation and Recommendations to Improve Potential for Health Gains

10 November 2014 14:44 (America/New_York)

Carbon Financing of Household Water Treatment: Background, Operation and Recommendations to Improve Potential for Health Gains. Env Sci Tech, Oct 2014.

Authors: James M. Hodge and Thomas F. Clasen. Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, United States, e-mail: tclasen@emory.edu

Household water treatment (HWT) provides a means for vulnerable populations to take charge of their own drinking water quality as they patiently wait for the pipe to finally reach them. In many low-income countries, however, promoters have not succeeded in scaling up the intervention among the target population or securing its consistent and sustained use. Carbon financing can provide the funding for reaching targeted populations with effective HWT solutions and the incentives to ensure their long-term uptake. Nevertheless, programs have been criticized because they do not actually reduce carbon emissions. We summarize the background and operation of carbon financing of HWT interventions, including the controversial construct of “suppressed demand”.

We agree that these programs have limited potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and that their characterization of trading “carbon for water” is misleading. Nevertheless, we show that the Kyoto Protocol expressly encouraged the use of suppressed demand as a means of allowing low-income countries to benefit from carbon financing provided it is used to advance development priorities such as health. We conclude by recommending changes to existing criteria for eligible HWT programs that will help ensure that they meet the conditions of microbiological effectiveness and actual use that will improve their potential for health gains.

Cholera at the Crossroads: The Association Between Endemic Cholera and National Access to Improved Water Sources and Sanitation

10 November 2014 14:38 (America/New_York)

Cholera at the Crossroads: The Association Between Endemic Cholera and National Access to Improved Water Sources and Sanitation. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, Nov 2014.

Authors: Benjamin L. Nygren*, Anna J. Blackstock and Eric D. Mintz

Address correspondence to Benjamin L. Nygren, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, MS-C09, Atlanta, GA 30329. E-mail: bnygren@cdc.gov

We evaluated World Health Organization (WHO) national water and sanitation coverage levels and the infant mortality rate as predictors of endemic cholera in the 5-year period following water and sanitation coverage estimates using logistic regression, receiver operator characteristic curves, and different definitions of endemicity.

Each was a significant predictors of endemic cholera at P < 0.001. Using a value of 250 for annual cases reported in 3 of 5 years, a national water access level of 71% has 65% sensitivity and 65% specificity in predicting endemic cholera, a sanitation access level of 39% has 63% sensitivity and 62% specificity, and an infant mortality rate of 65/1,000 has 67% sensitivity and 69% specificity.

Our findings reveal the tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity for these predictors of endemic cholera and highlight the substantial uncertainty in the data. More accurate global surveillance data will enable more precise characterization of the benefits of improved water and sanitation.

Open-source mobile water quality testing platform

10 November 2014 14:33 (America/New_York)

Open-source mobile water quality testing platform. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, Vol 4 No 3 pp 532–537 2014.

Authors: Bas Wijnen, G. C. Anzalone and Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 601 M&M Building, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931-1295, USA E-mail: pearce@mtu.edu
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 601 M&M Building, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931-1295, USA

The developing world remains plagued by lack of access to safe drinking water. Although many low-cost methods have been developed to treat contaminated water, low-cost methods for water-quality testing are necessary to determine if these appropriate technologies are needed, effective, and reliable. This paper provides a methodology for the design, development, and technical validation of a low-cost, open-source (OS) water testing platform. A case study is presented where the platform is developed to provide both the colorimetry for biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand and nephelometry to measure turbidity using method ISO 7027. This approach resulted in equipment that is as accurate, but costs between 7.5 and 15 times less than current commercially available tools. It is concluded that OS hardware development is a promising solution for the equipment necessary to perform water quality measurements in both developed and developing regions.

Scaling up Multiple Use Water Services: Accountability in the water sector

10 November 2014 14:28 (America/New_York)

Scaling up Multiple Use Water Services: Accountability in the water sector, October 2014.

Authors: Barbara van Koppen, Stef Smits, Cristina Rumbaitis del Rio and John B. Thomas. IWMI.

Scaling up Multiple Use Water Services argues that by designing cost-effective multi-purpose infrastructure MUS can have a positive impact on people’s health and livelihoods. It analyses and explains the success factors of MUS, using a framework of accountability for public service delivery, and it also examines why there has been resistance against scaling up MUS. A stronger service delivery approach can overcome this resistance, by rewarding more livelihood outcomes, by fostering discretionary decision-making power of local-level staff and by allowing horizontal coordination. This book should be read by government and aid agency policy makers in the WASH and agriculture sectors, by development field workers, and by academics, researchers and students of international development.

Comparing Willingness to Pay for Improved Drinking-Water Quality Using Stated Preference Methods in Rural and Urban Kenya

10 November 2014 14:23 (America/New_York)

Comparing Willingness to Pay for Improved Drinking-Water Quality Using Stated Preference Methods in Rural and Urban Kenya. Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2014 Nov 8.

Authors: Brouwer R1, Job FC, van der Kroon B, Johnston R.
1Department of Environmental Economics, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, r.brouwer@vu.nl.

BACKGROUND: Access to safe drinking water has been on the global agenda for decades. The key to safe drinking water is found in household water treatment and safe storage systems.

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assessed rural and urban household demand for a new gravity-driven membrane (GDM) drinking-water filter.

METHODS: A choice experiment (CE) was used to assess the value attached to the characteristics of a new GDM filter before marketing in urban and rural Kenya. The CE was followed by a contingent valuation (CV) question. Differences in willingness to pay (WTP) for the same filter design were tested between methods, as well as urban and rural samples.

RESULTS: The CV follow-up approach produces more conservative and statistically more efficient WTP values than the CE, with only limited indications of anchoring. The effect of the new filter technology on children with diarrhea is among the most important drivers behind choice behavior and WTP in both areas. The urban sample is willing to pay more in absolute terms than the rural sample irrespective of the valuation method. Rural households are more price sensitive, and willing to pay more in relative terms compared with disposable household income.

CONCLUSION: A differentiated marketing strategy across rural and urban areas is expected to increase uptake and diffusion of the new filter technology.

Methods to Test Chlorine Solution Concentrations in Ebola Emergencies

29 October 2014 10:32 (America/New_York)

Methods to Test Chlorine Solution Concentrations in Ebola Emergencies, 2014.

Daniele Lantagne, Tufts University.

Three alternate methods are described herein: 1) portable iodimetric titration kits; 2) dilution followed by testing with FCR/TCR test kits; and, 3) calculation based on manufacturing.

 

Methods to Make Chlorine Solution in Ebola Emergencies

29 October 2014 10:24 (America/New_York)

Methods to Make Chlorine Solution in Ebola Emergencies, 2014.

Daniele Lantagne, Tufts University.

Chlorine solution is widely used for disinfection in emergency response activities. In Ebola response,0.5%chlorine solution is recommended for cleaning non-­living things and surfaces and 0.05% chlorine solution is recommended for cleaning living things.

The methods for on-­site manufacturing include: 1) dilution of HTH or NaDCC powder in water; 2) dilution of concentrated liquid solution in water; and, 3) generating sodium hypochlorite using salt,water,and electricity.

The use of indigenous plant species for drinking water treatment in developing countries

1 October 2014 13:37 (America/New_York)

The use of indigenous plant species for drinking water treatment in developing countries: a review. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES), Sept 2014.

Moa Megersa, Abebe Beyene, Argaw Ambelu, Bizuneh Woldeab. Department of Environmental Health Science and Technology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia

Although universal access to safe and piped water is an important long-term solution, it is very expensive and challenging to implement in developing countries in the short term. Hence, improving both physicochemical and microbiological quality of drinking water at a household level is believed to be effective in preventing infectious diarrhea. There are a number of household water treatment technologies proven to be effective in coagulation and disinfection. At present, a number of effective coagulants and disinfectants have been identified of plant origin.

Of the large number of plant materials that have been used over the years, the seeds from Moringa oleifera have been shown to be one of the most effective primary coagulants for water treatment, especially in ruralcommunities. In addition, indigenous knowledge indicates that there are several plant species that can be used as a coagulant and disinfectant. Out of which seeds of Prosopis juliflora, Dolichos lablab and leaves of Opuntia ficus indica showed effectiveness in coagulation. Although, plant species have enormous advantage in water treatment, they also have limitation. The major limitation is the release of organic matter and nutrients to apply at large scale. From these review, it can be concluded that plant species have the potential to serve as a complementary water treatment agent especially in rural areas.

Coliform Bacteria as Indicators of Diarrheal Risk in Household Drinking Water: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1 October 2014 11:58 (America/New_York)

Coliform Bacteria as Indicators of Diarrheal Risk in Household Drinking Water: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE, Sept 2014.

Authors: Joshua S. Gruber, Ayse Ercumen, John M. Colford Jr.

Background – Current guidelines recommend the use of Escherichia coli (EC) or thermotolerant (“fecal”) coliforms (FC) as indicators of fecal contamination in drinking water. Despite their broad use as measures of water quality, there remains limited evidence for an association between EC or FC and diarrheal illness: a previous review found no evidence for a link between diarrhea and these indicators in household drinking water.

Objectives – We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to update the results of the previous review with newly available evidence, to explore differences between EC and FC indicators, and to assess the quality of available evidence.

Methods – We searched major databases using broad terms for household water quality and diarrhea. We extracted study characteristics and relative risks (RR) from relevant studies. We pooled RRs using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, and used standard methods to evaluate heterogeneity and publication bias.

Results – We identified 20 relevant studies; 14 studies provided extractable results for meta-analysis. When combining all studies, we found no association between EC or FC and diarrhea (RR 1.26 [95% CI: 0.98, 1.63]). When analyzing EC and FC separately, we found evidence for an association between diarrhea and EC (RR: 1.54 [95% CI: 1.37, 1.74]) but not FC (RR: 1.07 [95% CI: 0.79, 1.45]). Across all studies, we identified several elements of study design and reporting (e.g., timing of outcome and exposure measurement, accounting for correlated outcomes) that could be improved upon in future studies that evaluate the association between drinking water contamination and health.

Conclusions – Our findings, based on a review of the published literature, suggest that these two coliform groups have different associations with diarrhea in household drinking water. Our results support the use of EC as a fecal indicator in household drinking water.

Synthetic organic water contaminants in developing communities: an overlooked challenge addressed by adsorption with locally generated char

23 September 2014 12:14 (America/New_York)

Synthetic organic water contaminants in developing communities: an overlooked challenge addressed by adsorption with locally generated char. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, Vol 4 No 3 pp 422–436 © IWA Publishing 2014 doi:10.2166/washdev.2014.073

Joshua P. Kearns, Detlef R. U. Knappe and R. Scott Summers

Department of Civil, Environmental, & Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado-Boulder, 1111 Engineering Dr, ECOT 441, UCB 428, Boulder, CO 80309, USA E-mail: joshua.kearns@colorado.edu
Department of Civil, Construction, & Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, 2501 Stinson Dr, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA

Chemical contamination of drinking water sources is a worldwide problem. However, few locally managed, sustainable, and low-cost on-site treatment technologies are available in rural, remote, and emergency/disaster relief/humanitarian crisis situations. Char filter-adsorbers have been used to treat drinking water for thousands of years and are still widely used today. Our studies show that some chars produced by traditional means from a range of feedstocks develop favorable sorption properties for uptake of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a prevalent herbicide and water contaminant.

However, more energy efficient, environmentally sustainable and scalable production of consistent highly sorptive chars can be accomplished with biomass gasification. Our laboratory studies demonstrate that locally produced char adsorbents derived from surplus agricultural and forestry biomass are effective for adsorbing 2,4-D. A year-long study of field-scale application of chars in Thailand is also presented. Based on these studies we present design recommendations for integrating char adsorbers into low-cost, multi-barrier treatment trains for on-site water provision.

A compact point-of-use water purification cartridge for household use in developing countries

23 September 2014 12:11 (America/New_York)

A compact point-of-use water purification cartridge for household use in developing countries. Journal of Water and Health, In Press, Uncorrected Proof © IWA Publishing 2014 | doi:10.2166/wh.2014.111

Rajshree A. Patil, Dilshad Ahmad, Shankar B. Kausley, Pradeep L. Balkunde and Chetan P. Malhotra

TCS Innovation Labs – TRDDC, 54B, Hadapsar Industrial Estate, Pune – 411013, India E-mail: rajshree.patil@tcs.com

Simple, low-cost household interventions are known to be effective in lowering the incidence of waterborne diseases in developing countries. However, high costs along with operational and maintenance issues have prevented the successful adoption of these interventions among the affected communities. To address these limitations, a cost-effective, gravity-driven water purification cartridge has been developed by employing the synergistic disinfection action of low concentrations of silver and chlorine on bacteria and viruses.

The silver and chlorine treatment components within the cartridge have been developed using inexpensive materials and integrated with a life indicator and auto-shut-off-mechanism within a compact form factor. The antibacterial as well as antiviral performance of the cartridge was tested by using ground water spiked with Escherichia coli and MS2 bacteriophage. The results show that, although individually, the silver and chlorine treatment systems were unable to inactivate the test strains, the integrated cartridge inactivates both bacteria as well as viruses up to the log reduction requirement of the USEPA guide standard for microbiological water purifiers over its designated life of 2,000 liters.

Factors involved in sustained use of point-of-use water disinfection methods: A field study from Flores Island, Indonesia

23 September 2014 12:06 (America/New_York)

Factors involved in sustained use of point-of-use water disinfection methods: A field study from Flores Island, Indonesia. Journal of Water and Health, In Press, Uncorrected Proof © IWA Publishing 2014 | doi:10.2166/wh.2014.109

E. Roma, T. Bond and P. Jeffrey
Cranfield University, Water Science Institute, Cranfield, MK430AL, UK E-mail: elisa.roma@lshtm.ac.uk
Environmental Health Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, WC17HT, London, UK
Civil and Environmental Engineering, Skempton Building, Imperial College, London, UK

Many scientific studies have suggested that point-of-use water treatment can improve water quality and reduce the risk of infectious diseases. Despite the ease of use and relatively low cost of such methods, experience shows the potential benefits derived from provision of such systems depend on recipients’ acceptance of the technology and its sustained use. To date, few contributions have addressed the problem of user experience in the post-implementation phase.

This can diagnose challenges, which undermine system longevity and its sustained use. A qualitative evaluation of two household water treatment systems, solar disinfection (SODIS) and chlorine tablets (Aquatabs), in three villages was conducted by using a diagnostic tool focusing on technology performance and experience. Cross-sectional surveys and in-depth interviews were used to investigate perceptions of involved stakeholders (users, implementers and local government).

Results prove that economic and functional factors were significant in using SODIS, whilst perceptions of economic, taste and odour components were important in Aquatabs use. Conclusions relate to closing the gap between factors that technology implementers and users perceive as key to the sustained deployment of point-of-use disinfection technologies.

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