Household Drinking Water Quality Updates

Subscribe to Household Drinking Water Quality Updates feed
from the WASHplus Project
Updated: 47 min 7 sec ago

Eliminating Diseases by Investing in WASH

18 May 2015 13:53 (America/New_York)

Eliminating Diseases by Investing in WASH. Huffington Blog, May 2015.

Author: Neeraj Mistry, anaging Director for the Global Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases.

At the turn of the century, world leaders came together at the United Nations in New York to develop the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a set of eight ambitious goals and targets meant to significantly reduce poverty by the year 2015. As the window to achieve these goals closes this year, we reflect on progresses made and look ahead to the sustainable development goals (SDGs) that will shape the development agenda for the next 15 years.

A number of MDG targets have already been met, including efforts to reduce cases of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases (MDG 6) and improving access to safe drinking water (MDG 7). Moving forward, addressing neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) will be a critical component when working toward meeting both of these goals. NTDs are bacterial, parasitic and viral infections that affect the most marginalized communities across the world and are often the result of inadequate water supply, limited access to sanitation facilities and poor hygiene. Areas with stagnant water are breeding grounds for insects that carry NTDs, notably mosquitoes which transmit malaria, but also dengue fever, lymphatic filariasis and chikungunya. By promoting integrated vector management and improved water control measures in endemic countries, we can simultaneously work to combat HIV/AIDS and malaria, while also working to control and eliminate NTDs.

Since 2000, there has been significant advancement in the fight against HIV/AIDS, particularly by increasing access to life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for people living with HIV. The United Nations estimates that ART has saved 6.6 million livessince 1995. As with malaria, there are additional opportunities for integration that not only have the potential to reduce rates of HIV infection but also significantly improve water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions. For example, in many developing countries, women remain disproportionately vulnerable to HIV infection due to greater social safety issues, such as lacking access to safe and accessible latrines. By not having access to a safe lavatory, women are forced to use public spaces to openly defecate and manage their menstrual needs, making them increasingly susceptible to infections as well as sexual violence. Globally, more than two billion people lack access to a proper toilet. Many common, poor hygiene practices, such as open defecation and failure to wash one’s hands, promote the spread of disease. These factors combined perpetuate the cycle of NTD infections and other serious infections.

The proposed SDGs currently consist of 17 goals with 169 targets that aim to end poverty and hunger, improve health and education, make cities more sustainable, combat climate change, and protect oceans and forests. Goal 3 encompasses a number of health-related objectives and targets, including ending the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, NTDs and water-borne diseases by 2030. Meeting these targets will go hand-in-hand with Goal 6 — achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, ending open defecation, and paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.

There are many ways that enhancing WASH conditions unswervingly leads to NTD control and elimination. For example, by improving access and quality of water, sanitation and hygiene, we can significantly reduce the number of people suffering from trachoma, an infectious eye disease and leading cause of preventable blindness, which results from limited access to clean water and proper sanitation. By simply providing access to clean water, we can reduce the number of trachoma cases by 27 percent. Similarly, having better sanitation in place can decrease cases of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease carried by fresh water snails infected with parasites. Women are especially vulnerable, given that cases of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) result in three times greater chances of contracting HIV. It is estimated that at least 16 million women may be infected with FGS in Africa.

It is evident that WASH interventions have a multiplier effect and positively impact other health issues and development goals. As the window to achieve the MDGs comes to a close this year and we grow closer to confirming the goals and targets that will shape the next 15 years, we must emphasize the important synergies between WASH and the control and elimination of NTDs.

This blog post is part of the “WASH and the MDGs: The Ripple Effect” blog series, in partnership with WASH Advocates, addressing the importance of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) to global development. To see all the other posts in the series, click here. To learn more about WASH, visit the WASH Advocates website, and for more information about the Millennium Development Goals, click here.

 

 

Handwashing before drawing water: a sixth critical time?

18 May 2015 13:47 (America/New_York)

Handwashing before drawing water: a sixth critical time? Waterlines, Apr 2015.

Author: Sally Sutton

The promotion of critical times for handwashing has done much to improve knowledge on hygiene, even if rather less on the practice. However while there has long been a recognition of the need to wash hands before preparing food, there has never been any mention of taking the same precautions before drawing water.

With almost half of rural Africa still taking water either by bucket and rope or by scooping water from surface and shallow ground water, lack of handwashing can not only lead to contamination of the water being carried home, but also of the source itself, as demonstrated by source water quality monitoring detailed in this paper.

Even for those taking water from better protected sources, dirty hands can lead to contamination of collected water, especially where bowls and buckets are the main vessels for water transport. Handwashing before water collection is proposed as an additional barrier to faecal-oral contamination, to make a sixth critical time.

Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis

18 May 2015 13:43 (America/New_York)

Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis. Env Health Perspec, May 2015.

Authors: Katherine F. Shields, Robert E.S. Bain, Ryan Cronk, Jim A. Wright, and Jamie Bartram

Background: Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household.

Objectives: To assess the extent of fecal contamination at the source and in household storedwater (HSW) and explore the relationship between contamination at each of these sampling points and water supply type.

Methods: A bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies, identified through asystematic review, that reported either the proportion of samples free of fecal indicator bacteria and/or individual sample bacteria counts for source and HSW, disaggregated by supply type.

Results: Water quality deteriorated substantially between source and stored water. Mean percentage of contaminated samples (noncompliance) at the source was 46% (95% CI: 33, 60%) while mean noncompliance in HSW was 75% (95% CI: 64, 84%). Water supply type was significantly associated with noncompliance at the source (p < .001) and in HSW (p = 0.03). Source water (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5) and HSW (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) from pipedsupplies had significantly lower odds of contamination when compared to non-piped water,potentially due to residual chlorine.

Conclusions: Piped water is less likely to be contaminated compared to other water supply typesat both the source and in HSW. A focus on upgrading water services to piped supplies may helpimprove safety, including for those drinking stored water.

Accuracy, precision, usability, and cost of free chlorine residual testing methods

18 May 2015 13:39 (America/New_York)

Accuracy, precision, usability, and cost of free chlorine residual testing methods. Journal of Water and Health Vol 13 No 1 pp 79–90 © IWA Publishing 2015 doi:10.2166/wh.2014.195.

Authors: Anna Murray and Daniele Lantagne

Chlorine is the most widely used disinfectant worldwide, partially because residual protection is maintained after treatment. This residual is measured using colorimetric test kits varying in accuracy, precision, training required, and cost. Seven commercially available colorimeters, color wheel and test tube comparator kits, pool test kits, and test strips were evaluated for use in low-resource settings by: (1) measuring in quintuplicate 11 samples from 0.0–4.0 mg/L free chlorine residual in laboratory and natural light settings to determine accuracy and precision; (2) conducting volunteer testing where participants used and evaluated each test kit; and (3) comparing costs.

Laboratory accuracy ranged from 5.1–40.5% measurement error, with colorimeters the most accurate and test strip methods the least. Variation between laboratory and natural light readings occurred with one test strip method. Volunteer participants found test strip methods easiest and color wheel methods most difficult, and were most confident in the colorimeter and least confident in test strip methods. Costs range from 3.50–444 USD for 100 tests. Application of a decision matrix found colorimeters and test tube comparator kits were most appropriate for use in low-resource settings; it is recommended users apply the decision matrix themselves, as the appropriate kit might vary by context.

Microbial quality of domestic water: following the contamination chain in a rural township in Kenya

18 May 2015 13:36 (America/New_York)

Microbial quality of domestic water: following the contamination chain in a rural township in Kenya. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development Vol 5 No 1 pp 39–49 © IWA Publishing 2015 doi:10.2166/washdev.2014.070

Authors: Pauline W. Macharia, Paul T. Yillia, Wairimu A. Muia, Denis Byamukama and Norbert Kreuzinger

A study was undertaken in Njoro Township, Kenya to evaluate the extent to which drinking water was subjected to post-collection faecal contamination in low-income and high-income households. Boreholes were the main drinking water sources, accounting for roughly 70% singular access. The microbial quality of drinking water from the boreholes deteriorated from the point-of-collection through conveying containers of small-scale water vendors to household storage containers, irrespective of their income status.

The densities of Escherichia coli (EC) were relatively low at the point-of-collection – median (M): 18 CFU/100 mL, range (R): 0–220, n = 60 – increasing considerably in the containers of water vendors (M: 290 CFU/100 mL, R: 30–350) and slightly (M: 360 CFU/100 mL, R: 0–520) between vendors and low-income households, many of whom used the services of vendors unlike high-income households who relied on a piped system on premises (M: 40 CFU/100 mL, R: 0–500). Post-collection contamination was high in low-income households compared to high-income households but differences were not significant between the two household categories with and without household water treatment (HWT).

Different HWT methods in the two household categories significantly reduced faecal contamination, but unhygienic handling and poor storage practices afterwards caused recontamination. HWT and behavioural change measures need not selectively target household groups solely on the basis of their income status.

Development of improved low-cost ceramic water filters for viral removal in the Haitian context

18 May 2015 13:33 (America/New_York)

Development of improved low-cost ceramic water filters for viral removal in the Haitian contextJournal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development Vol 5 No 1 pp 28–38 © IWA Publishing 2015 doi:10.2166/washdev.2014.121.

Authors: L. Guerrero-Latorre, M. Rusiñol, A. Hundesa, M. Garcia-Valles, S. Martinez, O. Joseph, S. Bofill-Mas and R. Girones

Household-based water treatment (HWT) is increasingly being promoted to improve water quality and, therefore, health status in low-income countries. Ceramic water filters (CWFs) are used in many regions as sustainable HWT and have been proven to meet World Health Organization (WHO) microbiological performance targets for bacterial removal (2–4 log); however, the described viral removal efficiencies are insufficient to significantly reduce the associated risk of viral infection. With the objective of improving the viral removal efficiencies of ceramic water filters, new prototypes with different oxide compositions and firing atmospheres have been developed and evaluated.

For removal efficiencies human adenoviruses, MS2 bacteriophage and Escherichia coli were quantified in all prototypes. A new model of CWF that was fired in a reductive atmosphere presented virus and bacteria removal efficiencies greater than 3.0 log and 2.5 log, respectively, which would fulfill the viral targets that are recommended by the WHO. Ceramic characterization of the selected filters, which were fired in a reductive atmosphere, showed that a larger specific surface area than those of control filters and higher fraction of a positive Z-potential fraction are the most likely explanations for this increase in virus removal.

Fouling in hollow fiber membrane microfilters used for household water treatment

18 May 2015 13:30 (America/New_York)

Fouling in hollow fiber membrane microfilters used for household water treatmentJournal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development In Press, Uncorrected Proof © IWA Publishing 2015  |  doi:10.2166/washdev.2015.206

Authors: Anna Murray, Mario Goeb, Barbara Stewart, Catherine Hopper, Jamin Peck, Carolyn Meub, Ayse Asatekin and Daniele Lantagne

The Sawyer PointOne hollow fiber membrane microfilter is promoted for household water treatment in developing countries. Critical limitations of membrane filtration are reversible and irreversible membrane fouling, managed by backwashing and chemical cleaning, respectively. The PointOne advertised lifespan is 10 years; users are instructed to backwash as maintenance. Owing to reduced turbidity and bacterial removal efficiencies, six PointOnes were removed from Honduran homes after 23 months of use. In the laboratory, we tested sterile water filtrate for turbidity and bacterial presence before and after backwashing and chemical cleaning. Sterile water filtrate from uncleaned filters had turbidity of 144–200 NTU and bacteria counts of 13–200 CFU. Cleaned filter effluent was positive for total coliforms.

On one new and one used, cleaned filter, we imaged membranes with scanning electron microscopy and characterized surface elemental compositions with spectroscopy. Images and spectroscopy of the used, cleaned membrane revealed a dense, cake fouling layer consisting of inorganic metal oxides, organic material, and biofouling. Burst fibers were visually observed. This PointOne was thus irreversibly fouled and non-functional after <2 years of use. Further research is recommended to determine: impacts of source water quality on PointOne performance, a cleaning regimen to manage fouling, and an appropriate filter lifespan.

Short- and Medium-Term Impacts of Household Water Supply and Sanitation on Diarrhea in Rural India

7 May 2015 10:59 (America/New_York)

The Short- and Medium-Term Impacts of Household Water Supply and Sanitation on Diarrhea in Rural India, April 2015. Maryland Population Research Center Working Paper.

Authors: Esther Duflo, Michael Greenston, Raymond Guiteras, Thomas Clasen.

Poor water quality and sanitation lead to severe health problems in developing countries, yet there is little evidence on the effectiveness of at-scale, infrastructure-based solutions for the rural poor. This paper estimates the impact of an integrated water and sanitation improvement program in rural India that provided household-level water connections, latrines, and bathing facilities to all households in approximately 100 villages. We employ an interrupted time-series analysis with multiple units to estimate the short- and medium-term impacts of the intervention on episodes of diarrhea for which treatment was received. The estimates suggest that the intervention was effective, reducing such episodes by 30-50%. These results are evident in the short term and persist for 5 years or more. The annual cost is approximately US$60 per household, as compared to annual household consumption of approximately US$740.

Susan Murcott: Getting the Right Products to Scale: Technology Evaluation for Water Filters

7 May 2015 10:49 (America/New_York)

Getting the Right Products to Scale: Technology Evaluation for Water Filters, By Susan Murcott, CITE Suitability Lead, MIT DUSP Research Engineer & D-Lab Instructor. Source: D-Lab, April 29, 2015.

Low-income consumers aspire to a better life that humanitarian products offer. International aid agencies, non-governmental organizations, governments and social entrepreneurs promote and disseminate millions of humanitarian products to alleviate poverty. But many of these products fail to deliver—either they fail to perform consistently, or if they survive in the marketplace, they fail to reach scale.

Rigorous product evaluations that are trusted, affordable and comprehensible are important preconditions to impact, sustained use, and scale. To meet this need, MIT launched the Comprehensive Initiative on Technology Evaluation(CITE), a five-year, USAID-funded project to develop a 3S Methodology, examining products’ suitability, scalability, and sustainability. This methodology has now guided two product evaluations to completion, one on solar lanterns in Uganda and another on household water filters in India.

In a recent session at the MIT Scaling Development Ventures conference, we presented our household water filter research in order to explore the challenges of rigorous product evaluation as well as the benefits and opportunities that it can create for development practitioners, users, and entrepreneurs to bring the best products to scale.

Our focal city for the evaluation was Ahmedabad, India, a city of 6 million people, comprised of all income classes, and the target populations were the poor, many of whom have been relocated in Ahmedabad from slums to subsidized, government-built, low-cost housing. This is a unique situation in which the poor have access to an “improved” water source, but it is of mixed water quality.

 

Infant and Young Child Faeces Management: Potential enabling products for their hygienic collection, transport, and disposal in Cambodia

1 May 2015 11:07 (America/New_York)

Infant and Young Child Faeces Management: Potential enabling products for their hygienic collection, transport, and disposal in Cambodia, 2015. WaterSHED; London School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Authors: Molly Miller-Petrie, Lindsay Voigt, Lyn McLennan, Sandy Cairncross, Marion Jenkins

Background – Despite evidence that children’s faeces play a major role in diarrheal disease transmission through the contamination of the household environment, relatively little priority has been given to research and interventions in this area. In Cambodia, only 20% of children’s faeces were disposed of in an improved sanitation facility according to the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey. This study explores current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management practices.

Methods – A household survey was conducted in 130 houses in 21 villages and two provinces in Cambodia. Four focus group discussions were conducted, two in each province. Households were restricted to those with an improved sanitation facility and at least one child under five. Results were analysed using STATA13 and explanatory variables were tested individually and using logistic regression to control for child age. Focus group results were analysed qualitatively.

Results – Main place of defecation, method of moving faeces, and main place of disposal differed depending on child age, with children under two least likely to have their faeces disposed of hygienically. Overall, 62.7% of households reported using a hygienic main disposal site while 35.7% reported doing so consistently. Factors associated with hygienic disposal included the number of years a household had owned a latrine, the age of the caregiver, the consistency of adult latrine use, and the presence of tools for child faeces management in the latrine.

Discussion – The results demonstrate a need for interventions targeting the hygienic management of faeces of children under five in Cambodia, and particularly for children under two. The technologies most likely to facilitate hygienic disposal for these age ranges include reusable diapers, potties, and potentially latrine seats. Design features should ensure child safety, time-savings, cost-savings, ease of disposal, and ease of cleaning. Product marketing will also need to address hygiene behaviours related to child cleaning and caretaker hand washing to ensure reduction of disease transmission.

Factors Determining Water Treatment Behavior for the Prevention of Cholera in Chad

1 May 2015 11:01 (America/New_York)

Factors Determining Water Treatment Behavior for the Prevention of Cholera in Chad. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, Apr 2015.

Authors: Jonathan Lilje, Hamit Kessely and Hans-Joachim Mosler

Cholera is a well-known and feared disease in developing countries, and is linked to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Contaminated drinking water and the lack of sufficient treatment are two of the key causes of high transmission rates. This article presents a representative health survey performed in Chad to inform future intervention strategies in the prevention and control of cholera. To identify critical psychological factors for behavior change, structured household interviews were administered to N = 1,017 primary caregivers, assessing their thoughts and attitudes toward household water treatment according to the Risk, Attitude, Norm, Ability, and Self-regulation model.

The intervention potential for each factor was estimated by analyzing differences in means between groups of current performers and nonperformers of water treatment. Personal risk evaluation for diarrheal diseases and particularly for cholera was very low among the study population. Likewise, the perception of social norms was found to be rather unfavorable for water treatment behaviors. In addition, self-reported ability estimates (self-efficacy) revealed some potential for intervention. A mass radio campaign is proposed, using information and normative behavior change techniques, in combination with community meetings focused on targeting abilities and personal commitment to water treatment.

 

CO2 and H2O: Understanding Different Stakeholder Perspectives on the Use of Carbon Credits to Finance Household Water Treatment Projects

1 May 2015 10:54 (America/New_York)

CO2 and H2O: Understanding Different Stakeholder Perspectives on the Use of Carbon Credits to Finance Household Water Treatment Projects. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 30.

Summers SK1, Rainey R2, Kaur M3, Graham JP1.

1Department of Global Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America.
2United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington D.C., United States of America.
3Berkeley Air Monitoring Group, Berkeley, California, United States of America.

BACKGROUND: Carbon credits are an increasingly prevalent market-based mechanism used to subsidize household water treatment technologies (HWT). This involves generating credits through the reduction of carbon emissions from boiling water by providing a technology that reduces greenhouse gas emissions linked to climate change. Proponents claim this process delivers health and environmental benefits by providing clean drinking water and reducing greenhouse gases. Selling carbon credits associated with HWT projects requires rigorous monitoring to ensure households are using the HWT and achieving the desired benefits of the device. Critics have suggested that the technologies provide neither the benefits of clean water nor reduced emissions. This study explores the perspectives of carbon credit and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) experts on HWT carbon credit projects.

METHODS: Thirteen semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants from the WASH and carbon credit development sectors. The interviews explored perceptions of the two groups with respect to the procedures applied in the Gold Standard methodology for trading Voluntary Emission Reduction (VER) credits.

RESULTS: Agreement among the WASH and carbon credit experts existed for the concept of suppressed demand and parameters in the baseline water boiling test. Key differences, however, existed. WASH experts’ responses highlighted a focus on objectively verifiable data for monitoring carbon projects while carbon credit experts called for contextualizing observed data with the need for flexibility and balancing financial viability with quality assurance.

CONCLUSIONS: Carbon credit projects have the potential to become an important financing mechanism for clean energy in low- and middle-income countries. Based on this research we recommend that more effort be placed on building consensus on the underlying assumptions for obtaining carbon credits from HWT projects, as well as the approved methods for monitoring correct and consistent use of the HWT technologies in order to support public health impacts.

Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin.

29 April 2015 12:08 (America/New_York)

Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin. Water Resour Res, March 2015.

Authors: Andrea Stocker and Hans-Joachim Mosler

Recontamination of drinking water occurring between water collection at the source and the point of consumption is a current problem in developing countries. The household drinking water storage container is one source of contamination and should therefore be cleaned regularly. First, the present study investigated contextual factors that stimulate or inhibit the development of habitual cleaning of drinking water storage containers with soap and water. Second, based on the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) Model of behavior, the study aimed to determine which sociopsychological factors should be influenced by an intervention to promote habitual cleaning.

In a cross-sectional study, 905 households in rural Benin were interviewed by structured face-to-face interviews. A forced-entry regression analysis was used to determine potential contextual factors related to habitual cleaning. Subsequently, a hierarchical regression was conducted with the only relevant contextual factor entered in the first step (R2 5 6.7%) and the sociopsychological factors added in the second step (R2 5 62.5%).

Results showed that households using a clay container for drinking water storage had a significantly weaker habit of cleaning their water storage containers with soap and water than did households using other types of containers (b 5 20.10). The most important sociopsychological predictors of habitual cleaning were commitment (b 5 0.35), forgetting (b 5 20.22), and self-efficacy (b 5 0.14). The combined investigation of contextual and sociopsychological factors proved beneficial in terms of developing intervention strategies. Possible interventions based on these findings are recommended.

Factors Determining Water Treatment Behavior for the Prevention of Cholera in Chad

29 April 2015 12:03 (America/New_York)

Factors Determining Water Treatment Behavior for the Prevention of Cholera in Chad. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, April 2015

Authors: Jonathan Lilje, Hamit Kessely and Hans-Joachim Mosler

Cholera is a well-known and feared disease in developing countries, and is linked to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Contaminated drinking water and the lack of sufficient treatment are two of the key causes of high transmission rates. This article presents a representative health survey performed in Chad to inform future intervention strategies in the prevention and control of cholera. To identify critical psychological factors for behavior change, structured household interviews were administered to N = 1,017 primary caregivers, assessing their thoughts and attitudes toward household water treatment according to the Risk, Attitude, Norm, Ability, and Self-regulation model.

The intervention potential for each factor was estimated by analyzing differences in means between groups of current performers and nonperformers of water treatment. Personal risk evaluation for diarrheal diseases and particularly for cholera was very low among the study population. Likewise, the perception of social norms was found to be rather unfavorable for water treatment behaviors. In addition, self-reported ability estimates (self-efficacy) revealed some potential for intervention. A mass radio campaign is proposed, using information and normative behavior change techniques, in combination with community meetings focused on targeting abilities and personal commitment to water treatment.

Experiences with sustainability instruments : clauses, checks and compacts for ensuring WASH Services

23 April 2015 10:23 (America/New_York)

Experiences with sustainability instruments : clauses, checks and compacts for ensuring WASH Services, 2015. IRC.

Authors: Verhoeven, J., Uijtewaal, E., Schouten, T.

This report, based on a desk review, describes experiences in the use of several sustainability instruments that are used in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) projects. These instruments are:

  • the sustainability clause, check and compact developed by the Directorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS), an agency of the Netherlands’ Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • the Sanitation and Water for All country compacts for Ghana and Liberia, and
  • the financial, institutional, environmental, technical and social (FIETS) approach developed by the Dutch WASH Alliance for monitoring sustainability.

The report concludes with a summary of the main features of each instrument followed by a discussion on how they contributed to sustainable projects as well as on their shortcomings.

 

Bangladeshi arsenic- and salt-mitigation sourcebook and decision-support tool, 2015

23 April 2015 10:16 (America/New_York)

Bangladeshi arsenic- and salt-mitigation sourcebook and decision-support tool, 2015. IRC, BRAC and Practica Foundation.

Authors: Szántó, G., Halem, D. van, et al.

This publication provides a detailed description of the ASTRA arsenic- and salt-mitigation tool developed in the framework of the BRAC WASH II programme. It is a supporting compendium and tool to help decision-makers, practitioners and students understand and identify potentially appropriate technological solutions to tackle the widespread arsenic and salinity problems in the water sources of Bangladesh. The main focus is on arsenic removal by disinfection and (in)filtration and on the use of alternative water sources. The publication draws on both Bangladeshi and international research and practical experience.

The identification of appropriate solutions is based on a multidisciplinary assessment and matching of method functionality within a given local context. The publication contains both critical reviews and practical information of all potentially applicable solutions.

The first chapter describes the growing water stress and its key drivers in Bangladesh. The sourcebook includes mitigation methods that can either treat or circumvent arsenic- or salt-contaminated water sources. Three mitigation routes are outlined: (i) targeting arsenic- or salt-free groundwater, (ii) treating arsenic- or salt contaminated groundwater or (iii) disinfecting alternative, non-groundwater sources.

Using one or more of the identified mechanisms, 26 specific technological methods are identified as eligible for the water sector in Bangladesh. Their in-depth descriptions are given in chapter 6 of this publication. The descriptions of technical, institutional, ecological and socio-economic features are accompanied by eligibility matrices. The matrices allow users to assess the applicability of solutions for local or project-specific criteria. The description of decision-support tool is coupled with the user manual and the related online version. Finally, there is a discussion on ways to further improve the sustainability of the Bangladeshi water sector.

 

The Long-Term Impact of Water and Sanitation on Childhood Cognition

15 April 2015 11:25 (America/New_York)

The Long-Term Impact of Water and Sanitation on Childhood Cognition. The FASEB Journal, April 2015.

Authors: Nisaa’ Wulan, Emily Smith, et al.

Unsafe water and poor sanitation may negatively affect brain development, however few studies have examined the long-term impact on children’s cognitive function. Our objective was to assess the relationship between household access to safe water and toilet facilities during the prenatal period with childhood cognition 9-12 years later. The Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT), conducted in 2001-2004 In Indonesia, compared the health effects of a prenatal multiple micronutrient supplement to an iron and folic acid supplement.

Children of mothers who had access to safe toilet facilities during pregnancy had higher scores in Digit Span Forward (95%CI 0.008-0.17, P<0.03), Information (95%CI 0.08-0.2, P<0.001), Block Design (95%CI 0.01-0.1, P<0.02), and Word List Memory (95%CI 0.006-0.17, P<0.03) tests after adjusting for cluster randomization, data collector, maternal education, socio-economic status and home environment score.

Children of mothers with access to safe water during pregnancy had higher Word List Memory scores (95%CI 0.01-0.19, P<0.02). The finding that safe water and toilet facilities were associated with child cognition even after adjustment for socio-economic status and maternal education suggests that interventions to improve water and sanitation in early life may have long-term benefits on child cognitive abilities.

Water, sanitation, and diarrheal incidence among children: evidence from Guatemala

15 April 2015 11:19 (America/New_York)

Water, sanitation, and diarrheal incidence among children: evidence from Guatemala. Water Policy, In Press, Uncorrected Proof, Mar 2015.

Authors: William F. Vásquez and Anna-Maria Aksan

Using household survey data for Guatemala, this paper investigates the role of water and sanitation infrastructure on diarrheal incidence in children. Hierarchical logit models of diarrhea incidence are estimated to account for potential regional heterogeneity of water and sanitation effects. Results indicate that the incidence probability of diarrhea is on average 20% lower in homes connected to a sewage system. The effect of in-home access to tap water is weaker at 11% and subject to regional heterogeneity. Findings also indicate that consumption of bottled water reduces the incidence probability of diarrhea by 20–22%. In-home water treatments have no effect on incidence of diarrhea. Policy implications are discussed.

Piped water flows but sachet consumption grows: The paradoxical drinking water landscape of an urban slum in Ashaiman, Ghana

15 April 2015 11:14 (America/New_York)

Piped water flows but sachet consumption grows: The paradoxical drinking water landscape of an urban slum in Ashaiman, Ghana. Habitat International, June 2015.

Authors: Justin Stoler, et al.

Highlights

  • This research explores drinking water perceptions in Old Tulaku, an urban slum in Ashaiman, Ghana.
  • The study synthesizes results from 4 focus groups and survey data from 95 households.
  • Sachet water consumption is associated with socioeconomic and knowledge factors.
  • Drivers of water-seeking behaviour are complex and can inform water provision policy.

Empowerment in action: savings groups improving community water, sanitation, and hygiene services

15 April 2015 11:09 (America/New_York)

Empowerment in action: savings groups improving community water, sanitation, and hygiene services. Enterprise Development and Microfinance, March 2015.

Kaelyn DeVries, Alejandro Rizo, Project Concern International, Guatemala.

Savings groups (SGs) combined with social empowerment strategies can be used to engage communities meaningfully in addressing development challenges such as access to clean water and a functioning latrine. As participants in PCI’s SG initiative entitled Women Empowered (WE), women have independently identified WASH needs in their communities and have organized and carried out collective actions to improve their situation. This paper highlights results from a qualitative study in which PCI looked at SGs within two international development programmes in urban and rural Guatemala.

Pages

fhi360 care Winrock International

The information provided on this web site is not official U.S. Government information and does not represent the views or positions of the U.S. Agency for International Development or the U.S. Government.