Household Drinking Water Quality Updates
Water Hauling and Girls’ School Attendance: Some New Evidence From Ghana, 2013. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 6443
Céline Nauges; Jon Strand
In large parts of the world, a lack of home tap water burdens households as the water must be brought to the house from outside, at great expense in terms of effort and time. This paper studies how such costs affect girls’ schooling in Ghana, with an analysis based on four rounds of the Demographic and Health Surveys. Using Global Positioning System coordinates, it builds an artificial panel of clusters, identifying the closest neighbors within each round.
The results indicate a significant negative relation between girls’ school attendance and water hauling activity, as a halving of water fetching time increases girls’ school attendance by 2.4 percentage points on average, with stronger impacts in rural communities. The results seem to be the first definitive documentation of such a relationship in Africa. They document some of the multiple and wide population benefits of increased tap water access, in Africa and elsewhere.
Researchers Discover That The Tulsi Plant Can Be Used To Remove Fluoride From Drinking Water | Source: From the Trenches World Report, April 2013 |
An exciting and new water treatment breakthrough has been announced that will now make the removal of fluoride from the drinking water supplies of the world’s poorest people more affordable than ever.
At present, the most reliable methods used to remove excessive fluoride from drinking water are either too expensive or not suitable for the environments where they are needed most.
The method discovered by researchers from Rajasthan University is safe, cheap and readily available, making it an ideal alternative for communities who can’t afford to use the more advanced techniques of removing fluoride that are readily available in the West.
An experiment was conducted in the Yellareddyguda village of Narketpally Mandal. The researchers soaked 75mg of Tulsi leaves in 100ml of water that contained 7.4 parts per million of fluoride in the water.
After only soaking the Tulsi leaves for eight hours, it was discovered that the level of fluoride in the water was reduced from 7.4 parts per million, to only 1.1 parts per million.
At present, the World Health Organization recommends that the safe level of fluoride in drinking water is between 0.5 to 1 parts per million.
The dangers of drinking water that contains high levels of fluoride are well known. Some of the known side effects of drinking water that contains fluoride are dental fluorosis, reduced intelligence in children and a damaged nervous system.
This new water treatment option could now provide the world’s poorest people an opportunity to remove excessive fluoride from their drinking water supplies.
However, more research is still needed to identify and validate the effectiveness of using Tulasi leaves as a means of removing fluoride from drinking water supplies.
Considering the cost-prohibitive nature of other more reliable water treatment techniques, if the Tulsi plant is conclusively proven to be effective in removing fluoride from drinking water, then we may witness a revolution in water treatment, providing options to areas where none currently exist.
Risk reduction assessment of waterborne Salmonella and Vibrio by a chlorine contact disinfectant point-of-use device
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013 Jun;216(3):355-61.
Risk reduction assessment of waterborne Salmonella and Vibrio by a chlorine contact disinfectant point-of-use device.
Coulliette AD, Enger KS, Weir MH, Rose JB. Michigan State University, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. ACoulliette@cdc.gov
Unsafe drinking water continues to burden developing countries despite improvements in clean water delivery and sanitation, in response to Millennium Development Goal 7. Salmonella serotype Typhi and Vibrio cholerae bacteria can contaminate drinking water, causing waterborne typhoid fever and cholera, respectively. Household water treatment (HWT) systems are widely promoted to consumers in developing countries but it is difficult to establish their benefits to the population for specific disease reduction.
This research uses a laboratory assessment of halogenated chlorine beads treating contaminated water to inform a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of S. Typhi and V. cholerae disease in a developing country community of 1000 people. Laboratory challenges using seeded well water resulted in log10 reductions of 5.44 (± 0.98 standard error (SE)) and 6.07 (± 0.09 SE) for Salmonella serotype Typhimurium and V. cholerae, respectively. In well water with 10% sewage and seeded bacteria, the log10 reductions were 6.06 (± 0.62 SE) and 7.78 (± 0.11 SE) for S. Typhimurium and V. cholerae, respectively.
When one infected individual was contributing to the water contamination through fecal material leaking into the water source, the risk of disease associated with drinking untreated water was high according to a Monte Carlo analysis: a median of 0.20 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.017-0.54) for typhoid fever and a median of 0.11 (IQR 0.039-0.20) for cholera. If water was treated, risk greatly decreased, to a median of 4.1 × 10(-7) (IQR 1.6 × 10(-8) to 1.1 × 10(-5)) for typhoid fever and a median of 3.5 × 10(-9) (IQR 8.0 × 10(-10) to 1.3 × 10(-8)) for cholera. Insights on risk management policies and strategies for public health workers were gained using a simple QMRA scenario informed by laboratory assessment of HWT.
Using Tablets in Rural India to Build Demand for Safe Water: A Hi-Tech Approach to Promoting Good Health | Source: by Safe Water Network, Sacramento Bee, May 20, 2013 |
Safe Water Network announced today the launch of its innovative Tablet-based water and health education campaign designed to build awareness of and demand for safe water in rural communities. In one of the first applications of this technology in such a setting, the campaign uses multiple regional dialects and culturally specific marketing content to educate community members on the benefits of safe water and its link to good health. This work is supported by Merck Foundation and builds upon a long-term partnership with Safe Water Network to accelerate the adoption and usage of safe water for drinking and cooking.
“At Merck, we are interested in understanding how innovation can be used to improve global health,” says Danielle Menture, vice president of Global Safety & the Environment at Merck. “This initiative is an excellent example of a new way to use technology to improve access to clean water.”
Global health experts have been calling for an increased focus on behavior change for many years. Dr. Aidan Cronin, a Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Specialist at UNICEF India, recently stated, “UNICEF realizes the importance of creating awareness about safe drinking water and its multiple benefits.” Dr. Cronin views the Safe Water Network campaign as an important step forward. “In the midst of technology’s growing reach,” he says, “the Tablet campaign is an innovative program that will make people aware about water safety.”
The Tablet approach delivers standardized content which ensures that important messaging remains consistent across users and regions. According to MARI and ECO-Club, Safe Water Network’s local partners in the field, delivering safe water and hygiene messaging on a Tablet is creating a high level of excitement in rural communities. “The enthusiasm I’m met with in the village when using the Tablet allows me to connect with people quickly and hold their attention longer,” says Vedanta from MARI. “The Tablet symbolizes technology and progress; it creates a connection with their urban cousins.”
Safe Water Network’s campaign is gaining speed in unexpected ways. Opinion leaders in the village of Pathipaka are so motivated by the message and lessons, they have become advocates themselves. Rajitha, for example, is a leading health worker with ASHA in the Warangal district, and plays an important role in her community. “Women and children,” she says, “particularly young pregnant women, need to know the importance of always using safe water. In the past I’ve struggled to teach my community alone. Help has finally arrived.”
The campaign was developed in partnership with Dialogue Factory, a GroupM company that specializes in experiential marketing throughout India. The initiative builds on Safe Water Network’s “iJal” safe water brand that was designed to appeal to rural consumers. “We are proud to partner with Safe Water Network in their mission,” says Dalveer Singh, CEO of Dialogue Factory. “We believe that Tablets represent one of the most innovative and powerful tools to educate, entice and engage rural audiences.”
Over the next year, Safe Water Network will introduce additional functionality including educational video games, and an interactive “Project Assessment and Management” application to track safe water site assessments, planning, management and training.
A nine-month impact assessment completed by the consumer insight and market research firm IMRB will measure the campaign’s impact on safe water purchases as well as community attitudes towards safe water and hygiene.
About Safe Water Network
Safe Water Network’s mission is to develop innovative solutions that provide safe, affordable water to those in need. We bring together diverse capabilities to address the challenges of local ownership and sustainability. Working with the private and public sectors, we advance our field initiatives for broad replication. We also document and share this effort through forums, workshops, reports and case studies. Our water systems provide almost a quarter of a million people with safe water access in India and Ghana.
USAID and Dispensers for Safe Water Announce $5.5 million Partnership
by Alexandra Fielden
Women in the remote village of Markuny in Kenya are taking the lead and treating their families’ drinking water. This was not always the case; Markuny used to be one of the many places in the world where waterborne diseases are commonplace. Globally, diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under five.
To address the global challenge of sickness from cholera, diarrhea and typhoid, Innovations for Poverty Action developed the chlorine dispenser system – a low-cost technology proven to dramatically increase rates of household water treatment, decreasing the burden of waterborne disease. Today, USAID’s Administrator, Rajiv Shah, announced an award from USAID’s Development Innovation Ventures (DIV) to support the scale-up of the Dispensers for Safe Water program. The $5.5 million grant, supported by DIV’s WASH for Life partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, is DIV’s first Stage 3 award. Stage 3 funding is reserved for innovative solutions that have credible and rigorous evidence of development impacts at significant scale. Stage 3 projects transition an innovation from large scale implementation to widespread adoption; this grant will help Dispensers for Safe Water provide five million people with access to dispensers.
Chlorine dispensers are installed next to communal water sources, and supported by community education activities to encourage use, and a consistent supply of chlorine. To treat their water, community members simply turn the valve to release a metered dose of chlorine, then fill their container as they normally would with water from the source. The chlorine disinfects the water and provides ongoing protection from recontamination for up to 72 hours.
The dispenser allows community members to conveniently and easily treat their water, and its physical presence provides a visual reminder to do so. A randomized trial in Western Kenya found 50 – 61% of households in the treatment group adopted the water treatment, compared with only 6 – 14% in the control group. Impressively, the program has been able to maintain high usage, seeing 43% adoption rates at scale.
Director of Programs for Dispensers for Safe Water, Eric Kouskalis, said “we are thrilled to be partnering with DIV on the scale-up of dispensers. DIV’s objective is to find, test, and scale interventions that get the biggest bang for the buck, and at a cost of less than $0.50 per person per year at scale, dispensers fit the bill perfectly.”
Dispensers for Safe Water critically evaluates the program to drive improvements throughout the expansion. DIV and Dispensers for Safe Water will measure success along metrics such as the number of dispenser users (by gender), the percentage of households with chlorine present in their drinking water, the percentage of individuals who understand the benefits and correct usage of dispensers, and the dispenser manufacturing and chlorine delivery costs. This data will provide valuable feedback to help the program maximize adoption, sustain dispenser usage, and increase operational efficiencies.
Maura O’Neill, Chief Innovation Officer at DIV, congratulated DSW on the award. “Results based on rigorous evidence is the hallmark of DIV. Through this award with Dispensers for Safe Water, we will avert 3.3 million cases of diarrhea, save 3,200 children’s lives and that is just in the first three years.”
- Read the evidence: http://www.poverty-action.org/safewater/results
- Watch a video of how chlorine dispensers work: http://www.poverty-action.org/safewater
- Apply for DIV funding: http://www.usaid.gov/div/apply
Cholera Toolkit 2013. UNICEF.
The UNICEF Cholera Toolkit aims to provide UNICEF Offices, counterparts and partners with one source of information for prevention (or risk reduction) and control of cholera outbreaks, preparedness, response and recovery – including integration with regular/development programmes.
The Toolkit provides guidance primarily for the Health and WASH sectors; nevertheless guidelines are presented in an integrated manner, to avoid the continuation of ‘silo’ approaches for cholera prevention, preparedness and response. In addition, the Toolkit includes specific content linked to Education, Nutrition, C4D, Child Protection and other relevant sectors.
The Toolkit comprises this ‘Main Document’, a series of ‘Annexes’ (templates, checklists, spread sheets and more detailed reference information available only in electronic copy) and a selection of ‘Additional Resources’ (an electronic library including published papers, IEC materials, cholera guidelines, training packages, examples of mapping and a range of other practical information, available in the companion USB). Links to web-based resources are included throughout the electronic version of the Main Document.
Progress on sanitation and drinking-water – 2013 update: Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation.
JMP 2013 update presents country, regional and global estimates for the year 2011. Drinking-water coverage in 2011 remains at 89% – which is 1% above the MDG drinking-water target. In 2011, 768 million people relied on unimproved drinking-water sources. The report covers the following chapters:
- Global sanitation trends 1990-2011
- Trends in open defecation 1990-2011
- Global drinking-water trends 1990-2011
- Towards a post-2015 development agenda
- The JMP method.
New WASH resources website: http://resources.cawst.org
CAWST just launched a new website to make all of its education and training resources available.
WASH Education & Training Resources
In an effort to provide practicable and accessible WASH Education & Training resources to implementers, CAWST – The Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology has launched a new website with resources in English, French and Spanish. These resources have been used to educate and training over 1.5 million people worldwide.
Key resources include:
- Community education resources with 6 regional styles: Africa, Caribbean, Latin America, South Asia, South East Asia, and South West Asia.: http://resources.cawst.org/search/Community%20Education
- Water quality and household water treatment resources: http://resources.cawst.org/topic/household-water-treatment-and-safe-storage
The website will soon include trainer resources on how to use these materials and deliver effective training on various WASH subjects with NGO & Government field workers.All of CAWST resources are free and licensed under the Creative Commons by Attribution, meaning you can share, remix and adapt the content provided you attribute CAWST for the original work.
The full website is also available on USB flash drive, for offline use and low internet bandwidth countries. CAWST provides training, education and consulting support to over 400 WASH organizations in over 63 countries. For more information visit http://www.cawst.org
Water Quality and Health Strategy 2013-2020. WHO
This strategy, centred on primary prevention of waterborne and water-related diseases, has the following five strategic objectives for the period 2013 to 2020:
1. Obtain the most rigorous and relevant evidence regarding water quality and health
2. Provide up-to-date, harmonized water quality management guidelines and supporting resources
3. Strengthen capacity of Member States to most effectively manage water quality to protect public health
4. Facilitate implementation of water quality and health activities through partnerships and support to Member States
5. Monitor the impact of these activities on policies and practice to more effectively inform decision making
Prevalence of rotavirus and adenovirus associated with diarrhea among displaced communities in Khartoum, Sudan. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013, 13:209.
Wafa I Elhag, et al.
Background – Diarrheal diseases represent a major worldwide public health problem particularly in developing countries. Each year, at least four million children under five years of age die from diarrhea. Rotavirus, enteric adenovirus and some bacterial species are the most common identified infectious agents responsible for diarrhea in young children worldwide. This study was conducted to determine prevalence of rotavirus and adenovirus associated with diarrhea among displaced communities in Khartoum state, Sudan.
Methods – A total of seven hundred and ten patients, children and adults, suffering from diarrhea were examined. The clinical history, socio-demographic characteristics, physical examination findings and laboratory investigations were recorded. Stool samples or rectal swabs were collected and tested for rotavirus and adenovirus antigens using the immuno-chromatography test (ICT). Characterization of the identified Rotaviruses, as a major cause of diarrhea, was then made using real time-reverse transcription PCR. To make the study legal, an ethical clearance was obtained from Sudan Ministry of health- Research Ethical Committee. Written consent was taken from adult subjects, and also from children mothers. The participants were informed using simple language about the infection, aim of the research and the benefits of the study.
Results – Out of the 710 patients, viral pathogens were detected in only 99 cases (13.9%). Of the 99 cases of viral diarrhea, 83 (83.8%) were due to rotaviruses while 16 (16.2%) attributed to adenovirus. Of the 83 rotaviruses identified, 42 were characterized by RT-PCR, of these 40 (95.2%) were proved as type A (VP6), and 2 (4.8%) type C (VP7). Type C (VP7) rotavirus was detected in samples collected from children under 5years only.
Conclusions – In conclusion, most cases of viral diarrhea are found to be caused by rotavirus especially among children less than five years. Most of the identified rotavirus belonged to type A (VP6). It was also evident that most patients are those who drank untreated water obtained from donkey carts source and who had no access to latrines, and lived in poor environmental conditions would acquire diarrheal infection.
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Evidence paper, May 2013. DfID.
This paper was commissioned by the DFID Water and Sanitation and Research and Evidence Division (RED) Teams and undertaken by the DFID-funded Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) research programme consortium.
Specifically, and in line with general aims described above, this WASH Evidence Paper aims to:
- Provide an accessible guide to existing evidence including a conceptual framework for understanding how WASH impacts on health and well-being and a description of methods used for ascertaining the health, economic and social impacts of WASH
- Present the available evidence on the benefits and cost-effectiveness of interventions on WASH
- Identify what we do know and also what we do not know, and assess the robustness of the available evidence relating to the impact of WASH interventions.
- Disaggregate the benefits, where possible, by gender and poverty and the distribution of the global impacts across regions and economic status of countries.
This WASH Evidence Paper does not make specific recommendations on what DFID should or should not do, but instead identifies key lessons for consideration in evidence-based policy-making in the following areas:
1. evidence of impact
2. evidence of what works
3. evidence on cost-effectiveness and value for money
4. remaining knowledge gaps
Journal of Water and Health, 2013| doi:10.2166/wh.2013.213
Improving service delivery of water, sanitation, and hygiene in primary schools: a cluster-randomized trial in western Kenya
Kelly T. Alexander, et al.
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs in schools have been shown to improve health and reduce absence. In resource-poor settings, barriers such as inadequate budgets, lack of oversight, and competing priorities limit effective and sustained WASH service delivery in schools. We employed a cluster-randomized trial to examine if schools could improve WASH conditions within existing administrative structures. Seventy schools were divided into a control group and three intervention groups. All intervention schools received a budget for purchasing WASH-related items.
One group received no further intervention. A second group received additional funding for hiring a WASH attendant and making repairs to WASH infrastructure, and a third group was given guides for student and community monitoring of conditions. Intervention schools made significant improvements in provision of soap and handwashing water, treated drinking water, and clean latrines compared to controls. Teachers reported benefits of monitoring, repairs, and a WASH attendant, but quantitative data of WASH conditions did not determine whether expanded interventions out-performed our budget-only intervention.
Providing schools with budgets for WASH operational costs improved access to necessary supplies, but did not ensure consistent service delivery to students. Further work is needed to clarify how schools can provide WASH services
Environ Sci Technol. 2013 May 1.
Why do Water and Sanitation Systems for the Poor Still Fail? Policy Analysis in Economically Advanced Developing Countries.
Starkl M, Brunner N, Stenström TA.
The results of an independent evaluation of 60 case studies of water and sanitation infrastructure projects in India, Mexico and South Africa, most of them implemented since 2000, demonstrate an ongoing problem of failing infrastructure even in economically advanced developing countries. This paper presents a meta-analysis of those project case study results and analyses whether the design of existing policies or other factors contribute to failures. It concludes that the observed failures are due to well-known reasons and recommends how the implementation of the Dublin-Rio Principles can be improved. (They were introduced twenty years ago to avoid such failures by means of a more sustainable planning.).
WHO Bullletin, May 2013
Determinants of reduced child stunting in Cambodia: analysis of pooled data from three Demographic and Health Surveys
Nayu Ikeda, Yuki Irie & Kenji Shibuya
Objective – To assess how changes in socioeconomic and public health determinants may have contributed to the reduction in stunting prevalence seen among Cambodian children from 2000 to 2010.
Methods – A nationally representative sample of 10 366 children younger than 5 years was obtained from pooled data of cross-sectional surveys conducted in Cambodia in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The authors used a multivariate hierarchical logistic model to examine the association between the prevalence of childhood stunting over time and certain determinants. They estimated those changes in the prevalence of stunting in 2010 that could have been achieved through further improvements in public health indicators.
Findings – Child stunting was associated with the child’s sex and age, type of birth, maternal height, maternal body mass index, previous birth intervals, number of household members, household wealth index score, access to improved sanitation facilities, presence of diarrhoea, parents’ education, maternal tobacco use and mother’s birth during the Khmer Rouge famine. The reduction in stunting prevalence during the past decade was attributable to improvements in household wealth, sanitation, parental education, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use. The prevalence of stunting would have been further reduced by scaling up the coverage of improved sanitation facilities, extending birth intervals, and eradicating maternal tobacco use.
Conclusion – Child stunting in Cambodia has decreased owing to socioeconomic development and public health improvements. Effective policy interventions for sanitation, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use, as well as equitable economic growth and education, are the keys to further improvement in child nutrition.
Determinants of infant mortality in community of Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia
BMC Public Health. 2013 Apr 27;13(1):401.
Determinants of infant mortality in community of Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia: a matched case control study.
Dube L, Taha M, Asefa H.
BACKGROUND: Infant mortality accounts for almost 67 percent of under-five child mortality that occurs globally. An understanding of factors related to infant mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to reduce infant deaths. But no community based studies have been conducted to identify determinants of infant mortality in Ethiopia for the past two decades. The purpose of this study is to identify determinants of infant mortality in community of Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia.
METHODS: A community based matched case–control study was conducted. The study covered 133 infants who died during infancy between January 2010 and February 2011 in the study area. For each case, a control with approximately same date of birth and survived his/her first year of live and alive at time data collection was selected. Conditional logistic regression method was used to identify determinant factors of infant mortality using Epi-info 3.5.1 statistical software.
RESULTS: According to the final logistic regression model, not attending antenatal care follow-up [AOR=2.04, 95%CI:(1.04,4.02)], not using soap for hand washing before feeding child [AOR=2.50, 95%CI (1.32,4.76)], negative perceived benefits of mother to modern treatment and prevention [AOR=2.76, 95%CI:(1.21,6.09)], small birth size [AOR=2.91, 95%CI:(1.01,8.46)] and high birth order with short birth interval [AOR=3.80, 95%CI:(1.20,11.98)] were found to be independent determinants of infant mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal care follow-up, hand washing habit with soap before feeding child, birth size, perceived benefits of mothers to modern treatment, birth order and preceding birth interval were determinants of infant mortality.
Am Jnl Trop Med & Hygiene, Feb 2013
Long-Term Field Performance of Biosand Filters in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti
Andrew J. Sisson, Peter J. Wampler, Richard R. Rediske, James N. McNair and Daniel J. Frobish
A field study assessing the sustainability and efficacy of 55 biosand filters installed during 1999–2010 was conducted in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti during 2011. Twenty-nine filters were still in use. Duration of filter use ranged from < 1 to 12 years. Water quality, microbial analysis, and flow rate were evaluated for each functioning filter. Kaplan-Meier analysis of filter lifespans showed that filter use remained high (> 85%) up to seven years after installation. Several filters were still in use after 12 years, which is longer than documented in any previous study.
Filtered water from 25 filters (86%) contained Escherichia coli concentrations of < 10 most probable number of coliforms/100 mL. Recontamination of stored filtered water was negligible. Bacterial removal efficiency was 1.1 log10. Comparable results from previous studies in the same region and elsewhere show that biosand filter technology continues to be an effective and sustainable water treatment method in developing countries worldwide.
Household Environmental Conditions Are Associated with Enteropathy and Impaired Growth in Rural Bangladesh
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Apr 29.
Household Environmental Conditions Are Associated with Enteropathy and Impaired Growth in Rural Bangladesh.
Lin A, Arnold BF, Afreen S, Goto R, Huda TM, Haque R, Raqib R, Unicomb L, Ahmed T, Colford JM Jr, Luby SP.
Abstract - We assessed the relationship of fecal environmental contamination and environmental enteropathy. We compared markers of environmental enteropathy, parasite burden, and growth in 119 Bangladeshi children (≤ 48 months of age) across rural Bangladesh living in different levels of household environmental cleanliness defined by objective indicators of water quality and sanitary and hand-washing infrastructure.
Adjusted for potential confounding characteristics, children from clean households had 0.54 SDs (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06, 1.01) higher height-for-age z scores (HAZs), 0.32 SDs (95% CI = -0.72, 0.08) lower lactulose:mannitol (L:M) ratios in urine, and 0.23 SDs (95% CI = -0.63, 0.17) lower immunoglobulin G endotoxin core antibody (IgG EndoCAb) titers than children from contaminated households.
After adjusting for age and sex, a 1-unit increase in the ln L:M was associated with a 0.36 SDs decrease in HAZ (95% CI = -0.64, -0.07). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental contamination causes growth faltering mediated through environmental enteropathy.
USAID Water Development Strategy 2013-2018. USAID.
To address global water related development needs, this Strategy provides an increased focus for USAID’s water programs that is sustainable,works through host country systems,uses emerging science and technology, and learns from past efforts.
The goal of this Strategy is:
To save lives and advance development through improvements in water supply, sanitation,and hygiene (WASH) programs, and through sound management and use of water for food security. To achieve this goal, the Strategy sets two strategic objectives(SOs):
SO1) Improve health outcomes through the provision of sustainable WASH. This will be achieved through a continued focus on providing safe water,an increased emphasis on sanitation,and support for programs that can be brought to scale and be sustained. Based on previously requested funding levels,USAID projects providing a minimum of 10 million persons with sustainable access to improved water supply and 6 million persons with sustainable access to improved sanitation over the next five years.
SO2) Manage water for agriculture sustainably and more productively to enhance food security. This will be achieved through increased emphasis on more efficient use of rainfall and improved efficiency and management of existing irrigation systems including private and farmer owned micro irrigation systems. The Strategy recognizes that the greatest and most cost effective potential for crop yield increases are in rainfed areas. USAID will focus on increasing irrigated agriculture in select countries, including expanding irrigation in a responsible, sustainable, and climate resilient way.
Bacterial Contamination on Household Toys and Association with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Honduras
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(4), 1586-1597; doi:10.3390/ijerph10041586
Bacterial Contamination on Household Toys and Association with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Honduras
Christine E. Stauber 1,* , Adam Walters 2,† , Anna M. Fabiszewski de Aceituno 3,† and Mark D. Sobsey 2
1 Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 3995, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
2 Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Campus Box 7431, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
3 Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 6000K Claudia Nance Rollins Building, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Abstract: There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions (access to latrines, improved sanitation, improved water and the plastic biosand filter) on the levels of total coliforms and E. coli on existing and introduced toys during an on-going randomized controlled trial of the plastic biosand filter (plastic BSF). The following conditions were associated with decreased bacterial contamination on children’s toys: access to a latrine, access to improved sanitation and access to the plastic BSF. Overall, compared to existing toys, introduced toys had significantly lower levels of both E. coli and total coliforms.
Results suggest that levels of fecal indicator bacteria contamination on children’s toys may be associated with access to improved water and sanitation conditions in the home. In addition, the fecal indicator bacteria levels on toys probably vary with duration in the household. Additional information on how these toys become contaminated is needed to determine the usefulness of toys as indicators or sentinels of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, behaviors and risks.
Journal of Water and Health, Apr 2013|doi:10.2166/wh.2013.184
Genomic copy concentrations of selected waterborne viruses in a slum environment in Kampala, Uganda
A. Y. Katukiza, H. Temanu, J. W. Chung, J. W. A. Foppen and P. N. L. Lens
Department of Environmental Engineering and Water Technology, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, P.O. BOX 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands E-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Water Science and Engineering, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, P.O. BOX 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands
Department of Environmental Resources, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, P.O. BOX 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands
The presence of viruses in a slum environment where sanitation is poor is a major concern. However, little is known of their occurrence and genomic copy concentration in the slum environment. The main objective of this study was to determine the genomic copy concentrations of human adenoviruses F and G, Rotavirus (RV), Hepatitis A virus (HAV), Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and human adenovirus species A,C,D,E, and F (HAdV-ACDEF) in Bwaise III, a typical slum in Kampala, Uganda. Forty-one samples from surface water, grey water and ground water were collected from 30 sampling locations. The virus particles were recovered by glass wool filtration with elution using beef extract. DNA and RNA viruses were detected by the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and the reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR), respectively.
HAdV-F and G were detected in 70.7% of the samples with concentrations up to 2.65 × 101 genomic copies per mL (gc mL−1). RV and HAV were detected in 60.9 and 17.1% of the samples, respectively. The maximum concentration of RV was 1.87 × 102gc mL−1. In addition, 78% of the samples tested positive for the HAdV-ACDEF, but all samples tested negative for HEV. These new data are essential for quantitative microbial risk assessment, and for understanding the effects of environmental pollution in slums.