A team at the University of Delaware has received US$ 250,000 in additional funding to continue its research on “breathable membrane” linings for pit latrines.
The breathable fabric helps to prevent groundwater pollution, while also protecting sanitation workers from exposure to pathogens. Heat from biodegradation of the feces or from the sun gradually expels water vapour, but prevents the escape of particulate or dissolved constituents.
The first phase of the research (November 2011 – October 2013) was funded through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s Grand Challenges Explorations Fund.
Dentel is piloting the membrane technology in the slums of Kanpur, India, in collaboration with WaterAid. He wants to get them in place before the beginning of the rainy season in June. Since the membrane is reusable, the cost of using susch a sophisticated technology can be reduced.
At the same time, Dentel is working with UD engineering colleagues Daniel Cha and Paul Imhoff to apply the technology in wastewater treatment facilities in the USA and South Korea.
For more information you can follow and take part in a discussion about the research with Prof Dentel on the SuSan Forum.
Source: Karen B. Roberts, Bacteria fighting fabric, UDaily, 17 Apr 2014
Filed under: Research, Sanitary Facilities, South Asia, Technology, Wastewater Management Tagged: breathable membranes, faecal sludge management, India, pit latrines, pit linings, University of Delaware
Issue 142 April 18, 2014 | Focus on Sanitation and Water for All
High Level Meeting
This issue features the April 2014 Sanitation and Water for All High Level Meeting (HLM). Major commitments at the HLM included over 260 concrete actions by over 50 countries to strengthen institutions, improve planning, and increase domestic spending and donor investment in water and sanitation. Seventeen countries committed to end open defecation by 2030 or earlier, while over 20 countries went even farther and pledged to achieve universal access to water and sanitation within the same period. Other March and April 2014 WASH sector events and resources featured in this issue are a sanitation webinar, an online course on WASH policy, an update on WASH indicators and a study on geographical inequalities in the use of improved drinking water supply and sanitation across Africa.
April 11, 2014 – Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) High Level Meeting. | Meeting webcast | Meeting website with key documents | UNICEF press release |
The meeting was attended by Ministers of Finance from developing country partners, accompanied by their ministers responsible for water, sanitation and hygiene, and by ministers of development cooperation from donor countries, plus senior representatives from development banks, foundations and civil society. At the HLM developing countries, donors and development banks will report on the progress made on commitments tabled at the 2012 HLM and table new and more ambitious commitments for the period up to 2016.
March 24-28, 2014 – WASH for Everyone Everywhere 2014 Conference, Brisbane.(Conference presentations) | (Conference homepage) |
This conference was organized by the WASH Reference Group. The WASH Reference Group is a community of practice of non-governmental organizations and research institutions who are working together to enhance Australian-based sanitation and water initiatives overseas. The conference program included featured speakers from UNICEF, World Bank, the University of North Carolina and others. The conference presentations discussed multiple issues under the sub-themes of equitable access, universal services; achieving health outcomes with WASH; and sustaining services and outcomes.
April 29, 2014 – SuSanA/SEI Webinar on “Adding Missing Links in Sanitation Value Chains” with BMGF Grantees. (Link)
The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA), with assistance of a team led by Stockholm Environment Institute, is conducting its 7th webinar with Gates Foundation sanitation grantees. Three grantees of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation will present their research results.
May 27-29, 2014 – Asian Development Bank – 3rd Asian Sanitation Dialogue, Manila, Philippines. (Link)
For the 3rd Asian Sanitation Dialogue, the conference will emphasize a comprehensive approach to sanitation, and focus more on packaging on-site sanitation, wastewater and septage management projects as viable business opportunities.
Water Supply and Sanitation Policy in Developing Countries, May 2014.(Coursera.org)
This six-week University of Manchester online course will examine current conditions and trends in water and sanitation services in the Global South. It will take a critical look at the underlying political, economic, social, and technical reasons why almost a billion people lack access to improved water supplies and almost 2 billion still do not have improved sanitation services.
MARCH/APRIL 2014 ARTICLES & REPORTS
Editorial: Water and Sanitation: Addressing Inequalities. Lancet, Apr 2014. (Link)
Beyond direct health outcomes, investing in water and sanitation is essential to achievement of post—2015 sustainable development goals. The Lancet highlights four areas going forward. First, the poor must remain central to all planning, because they pay the highest individual cost in health and finances in efforts to access safe drinking water and sanitation. Donors and governments must target and urgently address open defecation in particular. Second, girls and women must be prioritized. They travel long distances to fetch water, and the lack of private sanitation facilities at schools to ensure their dignity and safety risks absenteeism and drop out. Third, in fragile states and situations, access to health services, clean water, and sanitation must be secured, rapidly and without question. The supply of clean drinking water and sanitation facilities can be the difference between life and death, not to mention risks to personal security. Fourth, and finally, with the rapid and uncontrolled growth of urban slums, climate change, conflict over water resources, and growing global demand for products and food that require water for production, all sectors beyond health must develop governance mechanisms to ensure that access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene, is a right for all.
Geographical Inequalities in Use of Improved Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Across Sub-Saharan Africa: Mapping and Spatial Analysis of Cross-sectional Survey Data, PLoS Medicine, Apr 2014. R Pullan. | Link to article | Science Daily summary | Voice of America summary | Blog post by Rachel Pullan |
Understanding geographic inequalities in coverage of drinking-water supply and sanitation (WSS) will help track progress towards universal coverage of water and sanitation by identifying marginalized populations, thus helping to control a large number of infectious diseases. This paper uses household survey data to develop comprehensive maps of WSS coverage at high spatial resolution for sub-Saharan Africa. This study identifies important geographic inequalities in use of WSS previously hidden within national statistics, confirming the necessity for targeted policies and metrics that reach the most marginalized populations. The presented maps and analysis approach can provide a mechanism for monitoring future reductions in inequality within countries, reflecting priorities of the post-2015 development agenda.
WASH Targets and Indicators Post-2015: Recommendations from International Consultations, Updated April 2014. WSSCC. (Link)
This document summarizes the latest proposals for post-2015 targets developed by global WASH stakeholders. The Joint Monitoring Programme will be hosting further technical consultations to refine the corresponding definitions and indicators for the purpose of global monitoring.
Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH): A Critical Component for Sustainable Soil-Transmitted Helminth and Schistosomiasis Control. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Apr 2014. S Campbell. (Link)
Progress towards achieving global control of helminths crucially depends on sustainable solutions that move beyond treating symptoms towards reducing exposure. With that in mind, it is necessary to augment chemotherapy with WASH and other interventions such as health promotion to achieve a cumulative impact of preventing reinfection and providing the greatest and most sustainable gains for helminth control and elimination. The authors believe that a strong justification exists to revise the WHO guidelines in the face of the abovementioned shortcomings. Such revision will result in a much-enhanced document that covers the full spectrum of short- and longer-term interventions for more holistic soil-transmitted helminth and schistosomiasis control.
Handbook on Human Rights to Water and Sanitation, 2014. United Nations. (Link)
The UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation, Catarina de Albuquerque, is developing a handbook to provide practical guidance to states and other stakeholders on how the rights to water and sanitation can be incorporated into law, policy, budgets, and service provision.
Why “Improved” Water Sources Are Not Always Safe. WHO Bulletin, Apr 2014. A Shaheed. (Link)
Existing and proposed metrics for household drinking-water services are intended to measure the availability, safety and accessibility of water sources. However, these attributes can be highly variable over time and space and this variation complicates the task of creating and implementing simple and scalable metrics. In this paper, authors highlight those factors—especially those that relate to so-called improved water sources—that contribute to variability in water safety but may not be generally recognized as important by non-experts.
Bridging the Divide: Using Aid Flows to Tackle Inequality in Water and Sanitation Access, 2014. WaterAid. (Link)
This briefing paper identifies the major inequalities that persist in the water and sanitation sector today. It contrasts these inequalities with the latest data on Official Development Assistance and shows that the greatest volume of aid rarely goes to the places where there is the greatest need.
From Promise to Reality: The Urgent Need for Southern African Leaders to Deliver on Their Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Commitments, 2014. WaterAid. (Link)
These five case studies focus on budget tracking and identify some of the key financing issues that face the Southern Africa region. Although relevant and clear information and data is not always available or easily accessible, together the studies make a case for urgent action: above all for sufficient, equitable and sustainable resourcing. Adding to the urgency are the current and future challenges that the continent faces from population growth, rapid urbanization and climate change. The Zambian case study describes government policy in peri-urban areas as a fire-fighting approach in the provision of water kiosks, when what is required is comprehensive housing development through settlement up-grading and in-house connections to water and sanitation services. Investment in decent homes, including social housing for rent, is one of the much-needed policy responses to rapid and unplanned urbanization.
The Problematic Nature of Measuring the Health Impact of Water and Sanitation Interventions, 2014. WP Schmidt, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. (Link)
In this editorial it is argued that decades of research into the health effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions have produced few credible results. This unfortunate situation is not due to researchers in the field being generally incapable but to almost insurmountable methodological challenges that come along with epidemiological research into interventions that take years to implement and even longer to produce an effect. Nevertheless, results of these studies are used to make at times drastic policy decisions. The Global Burden of Disease study is perhaps the culmination of efforts to make sense of data that make no sense in themselves. Using almost absurd assumptions and by ignoring long term health effects and many important water and sanitation related disease other than diarrhea, the estimated contribution of inadequate access to water and sanitation to the global burden of disease becomes negligible. The author argues that no evidence may be better than bad evidence, and that investment into water and sanitation can easily be justified by a range of non-health benefits alone.
Sanitation and Water for All — Because We Must. Huffington Post, Apr 2014. S Wijesekera, UNICEF. (Link)
“We are also using social media to generate awareness of issues in WASH. Like the hugely successful ‘Take poo to the loo’ campaign in India, which leads people to talk about the unmentionable subject of feces and defecation through their various online platforms, and agree that a problem exists and the solution is in their hands.”
The Vital Role of Business in Tackling the Water and Sanitation Crisis. The Guardian, Mar 2014. D Hillyard, WaterAid. (Link)
Universal access to safe water, basic sanitation and hygiene will add $220 billion a year to the world economy, explains Dave Hillyard, head of major partnerships at WaterAid.
WASHplus Weeklies will highlight topics such as Urban WASH, Indoor Air Pollution, Innovation, Household Water Treatment and Storage, Hand Washing, Integration, and more. If you would like to feature your organization’s materials in upcoming issues, please send them to Dan Campbell, WASHplus Knowledge Resources Specialist, at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Filed under: Campaigns and Events, Progress on Sanitation, Sanitary Facilities Tagged: Sanitation and Water for All
Indian social ventures that will each receive $50K in funding as part of the Artha Venture Challenge 2013
Indian social ventures that will each receive $50K in funding as part of the Artha Venture Challenge 2013 | Source/complete article: TechCircle India, Apr 11, 2014 |
Exceprts: Artha Venture Challenge (AVC), a national competition designed to identify, select and provide the best socially focused ventures access to mentoring, connections and funding has announced the names of its nine winners for AVC 2013. All of them will receive up to $50,000 (Rs 30 lakh) in funding from the Artha Platform subject to due diligence and investment approval.
AVC is funded by the Artha Platform and its founding organisation Rianta Philanthropy Ltd. The Artha Platform is a members-only online community and network dedicated to building stronger relationships between impact investors/donors, social entrepreneurs and the core capacity building support organisations working on or in India.
In its inaugural edition, AVC 2013 claims to have received applications from 116 enterprises across India. The cohort of 15 finalists, which was announced in September 2013 then received support to build a growth story by securing access to expert mentors, connections to a closed network of impact investors and media exposure.
Of these finalists, nine enterprises successfully leveraged the capacity building support provided over the last eight months to raise various rounds of funding in the forms of grant, equity and debt. These include Aakar Innovations, Avani BioEnergy, Banka Bioloo, Boond, Edubridge, Knids Green, Sevamob, Tamul Plates and Villgro Innovation Marketing.
Here is a quick look at the two sanitation winners:
Aakar Innovations Pvt Ltd: Over 300 million women in India do not use sanitary pads. Aakar is addressing this social issue by providing rural women and adolescent girls with high quality, biodegradable sanitary pads, produced using indigenously available raw materials, at an affordable cost. Aakar supports the demand by increasing community awareness on menstrual hygiene, and creates supply by manufacturing and selling machines (to produce the pads), and managing the raw material supply chain.
Banka BioLoo: A human waste management company that provides sustainable solutions for sanitation and waste water for rural and urban areas. Lack of adequate sanitation solutions in India leads to water and environment pollution causing major health issues, more so among children and women. The company offers complete sanitation solutions from installation of toilets to waste treatment and management. It uses robust bio-technology for the treatment of human waste at source and different structures for the toilet unit.
Filed under: Campaigns and Events, Dignity and Social Development, South Asia Tagged: India, menstrual hygiene management, sanitary pads
Several technologies displayed at the Reinvent the Toilet Fair: India “will be field tested in coming months in cities across India and Africa”, writes Doulaye Koné in the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) blog “Impatient Optimists”.
These include reinvented toilet technologies, pit latrine and septic tank emptying technologies, as well as sludge-to-energy processing technologies. Some of the participants at the fair in New Delhi, like the President of the Fecal Sludge Emptying Association from Senegal, wanted to buy some of the technologies on display on the spot. He was very disappointed to learn that we still need to do additional testing to validate their performances before commercialization but we were thrilled about his excitement.
Beside the field testing, the BMGF has announced a collaboration agreement with the South African government on sanitation innovation solutions. The Department of Science and Technology (DST) has committed ZAR 30 million (US$ 2.7 million) to test and promote toilet technologies being developed by BMGF grantees in schools and rural communities in South Africa. BMGF is contributing US$ 1 million to support the testing of technologies selected. South Africa’s Water Research Commission is the implementing agency.
“In terms of rural school sanitation, the technologies will be demonstrated in the Cofimvaba district in the Eastern Cape as part of the Technology for Rural Education Development project,” the department said. “The technologies will also be demonstrated in the 23 district municipalities that have been identified by the government as critical in terms of service delivery.”
More information on BMGF sanitation grantees is avaialable on SuSanA.org.
- Doulaye Koné , What Happened at the “Reinvent the Toilet Fair: India” and What’s Next?, Impatient Optimists, 11 Apr 2004
- South Africa, Gates Foundation to ‘reinvent the toilet’, SouthAfrica.info, 28 Mar 2014
Filed under: Africa, Funding, Sanitary Facilities, Technology, Wastewater Management Tagged: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Reinvent the Toilet Fair: India, Reinventing the Toilet, rural sanitation, school sanitation, South Africa
Sanitation and Water for All meeting yields promises designed to improve access, bolster growth and reduce inequality
WASHINGTON, D.C., 11 April 2014 – Top international development experts and government finance ministers from nearly 50 developing countries endorsed today a set of commitments designed to speed up access for the 2.5 billlion people lacking improved sanitation and the 748 million people without improved drinking water.
Some 1,400 children die each day from preventable diarrhoeal diseases linked to a lack of safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene, and countries lose out on billions of dollars of economic growth. Meanwhile, hundreds of millions of women and girls, disabled persons, pastoralists and other poor and marginalized communities are disproportionally affected without services.
The issues grabbed the attention of officials meeting in Washington on Friday, including United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, World Bank Group President Dr. Jim Yong Kim and SWA Chair John Kufuor. At the third biennial Sanitation and Water For All (SWA) High-Level Meeting, they noted the vast health, economic, social and environmental consequences of poor water, sanitation and hygiene, and called their meeting an important step forward.
“At the beginning of this meeting, I challenged the ministers in this room to make concrete and practical commitments,” said Kufuor, the former president of Ghana. “I am now more confident than ever, that our name – Sanitation and Water for All – will become our achievement.”
The SWA partnership is a global coalition of 90 developing country governments, donors, civil society organizations and other partners. It aims to catalyse political leadership and action, improve accountability and use scarce resources more effectively.
The meeting yielded 265 new commitments from 44 countries. Broadly speaking, the commitments aim to improve the use of financial resources and reduce inequality in access, build capacity of institutions charged with delivering water and sanitation services, and coordinate resources more effectively, both from governments and overseas development assistance.
The High Level Meeting came one day after a preparatory session at the the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO). That meeting brought government water, sanitation and health ministers together with representatives of donor countries, multi-lateral bodies and civil society organisations to review progress against their 2012 commitments and formulate the new promises.
For more information, visit www.sanitationandwaterforall.org.
Afghanistan,Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, CAR, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, DRC, Egypt, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea Conakry, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Lao PDR, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Timor Leste, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Filed under: Uncategorized
A sanitary pad manufacturer and a human waste management company are among the nine winners of the Artha Venture Challenge (AVC) 2013. All of them will receive up to US$ 50,000 (INR 3 million) in funding from the Artha Platform subject to due diligence and investment approval.
Award winner Aakar Innovations is a Delhi-based start-up that supplies raw materials and sanitary pad mini-factories to women’s groups in rural areas. Costing US$ 5,000, each mini-factory can produce 1500-2000 pads per day, which is enough to provide work to 10-30 women. The biodegradable Anandi pads are made from agri-waste. One pack of 8 pads sells for 20 rupees (US$ 0.33), said to be 40% less than branded mass-market products.
Banka BioLoo is a women led business from Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, providing sustainable solutions for sanitation and wastewater managment based on biotechnology. It manufactures, supplies and installs biodigesters for on-site treatment of human waste.
The Artha Platform is a members-only online community and network linking impact investors/donors, social entrepreneurs and capacity building support organisations working on or in India.
- Anand Rai, A look at the 9 social ventures that will each receive $50K in funding as part of the Artha Venture Challenge 2013, techcircle.in, 11 Apr 2014
- Cut from a different cloth, Economist, 14 Sep 2013
Filed under: Funding, Hygiene Promotion, South Asia, Wastewater Management Tagged: Aakar Innovations, Artha Venture Challenge, Banka BioLoo, biodigesters, India, menstrual hygiene management, sanitary pads, social entrepreneurs
29 April 2014 – SuSanA/SEI webinar on “Adding missing links in sanitation value chains” with BMGF grantees
The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) with assistance of a team led by Stockholm Environment Institute is inviting you to the 7th webinar with Gates Foundation sanitation grantees.
- Topic of the webinar is “Adding missing links in sanitation value chains”
- Date/Time: Tuesday 29 April 2014, 16:30 – 17:15 (CET – Central European Time; use this time converter to find your local time)
- Agenda: 16:00 Set-up of connections (you can start entering the virtual meeting room) – 16:30 recording starts – three presentations; each presentation is about 5 minutes long and is followed by around 10 minutes of questions – 17:15 end of webinar.
- The virtual meeting room can accommodate up to 100 participants. Attendance at this webinar is open to all.
- Once recorded, the webinar will be put online on the SuSanA Youtube channel in this Playlist together with previous webinars.
Three grantees of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation will present their research results:
1 – Is a power auger “Excrevator” a suitable tool to empty pit latrines in South Africa and septic tanks in India? By Francis de los Reyes (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA)
Previous discussion about this research on the forum
2 – A compact water recycling and energy harvesting system for off-grid public toilets in low-income urban areas: The NEWgeneratorTM anaerobic membrane bioreactor ready for field testing in India. By Daniel Yeh (University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA)
Previous discussion about this research on the forum.
3 – Community-scale facility to process faeces and faecal sludge into safe biochar by pyrolysis – field testing this year with Sanergy in Nairobi. By Brian von Herzen and Laura Talsma (Climate Foundation, California, USA)
Previous discussion about this research on the forum.
Instructions for attending the webinar:
There is no need to install any software to attend, simply go to this website. However, to obtain the passcode to enter the virtual room, please e-mail:
- Elisabeth von Muench: email@example.com or
- Arno Rosemarin: firstname.lastname@example.org
During the webinar, people in the audience can use their webcam or the chat function of Adobe Connect to ask questions. The main aim with these webinars is to have interesting discussions: this is not a one-way street but an exchange in both directions.
This is the seventh webinar in a series since July 2013 with the aim to give increased exposure to the BMGF research grants, which are also discussed on the SuSanA Discussion Forum here since January 2013. These webinars are an excellent tool to exchange on research approaches and results, and to hear directly from the researchers what the achievements and difficulties are with these projects that have been funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Further information about this SEI-led project with the BMGF sanitation grantees is available here.
Filed under: Education & training, Progress on Sanitation, Sanitary Facilities Tagged: faecal sludge management, pit latrine emptying, Stockholm Environment Institute, Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, webinars
Videos of exhibits at Reinvent the Toilet Fair India (21-22 March 2014) provided by SEI & SuSanA now available
Videos of exhibits at Reinvent the Toilet Fair India (21-22 March 2014) provided by SEI & SuSanA now available
Stockholm Environment Institute has announced that videos with grantees about their exhibits that were taken at the Reinvent the Toilet Fair in Delhi, India are now available online.
You find them all in this one convenient location, which is a Playlist in the SuSanA Youtube channel.
The videos include short 5-minute interviews with randomly selected grantees as well as “demo tours” of their innovative toilets/processing exhibits which were on display at the fair.
The first video in this Playlist is a thank you note from Melinda Gates who is thanking all the participants at the fair and is stressing that this kind of work is being valued in the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation at the highest level of leadership.
The second video in the Playlist gives just a visual overview of the exhibits (without sound).
The 17 projects that are featured (a random selection of all the exhibits) include (you can easily access each video in alphabetical order in the Playlist link.
- Alison Parker: The Nanomembrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK)
- Andrew Larsen: Low-cost sanitation for emergencies (Aerosan, USA)
- Andrew Whitesell: The Fecal Sludge Omni-Ingestor (Beaumont Design, USA)
- Bincy Baby: eToilet Imperial Model (Eram Scientific, India)
- Brian Stoner: Toilet with self contained waste treatment system (RTI, USA)
- Brian von Herzen: Biochar reactor for human solid waste processing (Climate Foundation, USA) + tour provided by Hamish Fallside
- Chip Fisher: Sol-Char Toilet (University of Colorado Boulder, USA)
- Clement Cid: Self-contained PV-powered wastewater treatment system (Caltech, USA)
- David Auerbach: Sanergy – Sustainable Sanitation in Africa’s Urban Slums (Kenya) (not strictly a grantee but large-scale laboratory for many grantees)
- Eberhard Morgenroth: Blue Diversion Toilet (EAWAG, Switzerland)
- Francis de los Reyes: Pit Excravator (power auger), North Carolina State University (USA)
- How Yong Ng: Low-cost decentralised sanitary system (National University of Singapore)
- Ioannis Ieropoulos: Urine-tricity: Electricity from urine (University of the West of England)
- Marcos Fiovaranti: Earth Auger: Urine diverting dry toilet (Fundacion In Terris, Ecuador) + demo by Chuck Henry
- Sherina Munyana: Catalysing sanitation as a business (Water for People, Uganda)
- Thammarat Koottatep: Solar septic tank and hydrocyclone toilet (AIT, Thailand)
- Paul Mackereth and Andrew Weatley: “Reinvented toilet @ lboro” – User interface / processing (Loughborough University, UK) (Loughborough is a large team and only two members were interviewed to due to convenience and availability at the time. The team is led by Professor Sohail.)
The videos in this Playlist include interviews about 17 sanitation research projects funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. For most of the projects, the footage is split in two separate video clips: one is a pure interview to get the overall project “story” and the other one is a technical tour of the exhibit. These interviews were done “spontaneously” with a hand-held video camera. Nevertheless, they do contain a wealth of information and provide an excellent overview of these projects.
The five questions asked in the interview were:
- What is the most unique aspect about your project, what makes it stand out amongst the others at this fair?
- How successful has it been in your trials so far, or what are your major achievements to date?
- What have been your main frustrations or hurdles that you have had to overcome or that you are still struggeling with?
- What is the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of your research project or how many more years before this can be implemented in practice at a large scale?
- Have you had any collaborations with any of the other grants that are present at this fair?
The videos and the Playlist were created by Elisabeth von Muench (Ostella, Germany) and Arno Rosemarin (SEI, Sweden), as part of a grant by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which is described here.
If you have questions on any of the projects or want to give feedback to the researchers, please make use of the SuSanA discussion forum here.
The last video in the Playlist shows you what it looked like when the exhibits were dismantled – a logistical challenge:
Materials and feedback from the Reinvent the Toilet Fair are here.
Podcast produced by the BMGF: “Inside the Gates, Episode 15 – Reinventing the toilet” is here.
Filed under: Campaigns and Events, South Asia, Uncategorized Tagged: Reinvent the Toilet Fair: India, Sustainable Sanitation Alliance
A new project promises to provide one million people in Bangladesh with an improved living environment and access to safe faecal sludge management. The project will also give 250,000 people access to improved sanitation facilities and use market-based solutions to generate biogas from sludge.
SNV Bangladesh and Khulna City Corporation (KCC) launched the “Demonstration of pro-poor market- based solutions for faecal sludge management in urban centres of Southern Bangladesh” project on March 31, 2014. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) are funding the project.
Currently Khulna has no designated dumping sites or treatment facilities for faecal sludge. The city has an estimated population of 1.6 million, while 1.2 million more people live in the surrounding 36 smaller towns. By developing faecal sludge management services in KCC, and the two small towns of Khustia and Jhenaidah in Khulna division, the four-year project aims to reform human waste management in Bangladesh.
Read more in the project brochure.
Source: SNV, 4 Apr 2014
Filed under: Research, Sanitary Facilities, South Asia, Wastewater Management Tagged: Bangladesh, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, biogas, DFID, faecal sludge management, Khulna, SNV Bangladesh
A group of organisations have launched an initiative to stimulate investment in business proposals that will lead to large-scale sanitation services for the poor. It will involve creating both a virtual marketplace and organising a matchmaking event in Singapore.
The organisations will promote their initiative at three upcoming sector events: the Sanitation and Water for All High Level Meeting, the Money2Water Global Water Investment Summit and the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) Council meeting.
The “Sanitation Business Matchmaking Estafetta” will culminate at the BoP WORLD Convention & Expo in Singapore in 28– 30 August 2014. The results of the Estafetta will be presented during the 2014 World Water Week in Stockholm.
The organisations that have launched the ”Sanitation Business Matchmaking Estafetta” include: Aqua for All, Euromoney Water Events, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Simavi, WSP and Waste in association with IRC and the World Toilet Organization. (WTO).
See the Estafetta poster for full details.
Filed under: Campaigns and Events, Funding, Sanitary Facilities, Wastewater Management Tagged: entrepreneurs, private investors, Private sector, Sanitation Business Matchmaking Estafetta
Issue 140 April 4, 2014 | Focus on Child Feces Disposal
A recent blog post by the SHARE project states that the feces of children may be particularly important in fecal-oral transmission since children are more susceptible to diseases such as diarrhea and often defecate in areas where other children could be exposed—the ground of a compound or in the house. This issue contains recent studies on child feces disposal practices in India and articles on child-friendly toilets. Also included are studies and reports on how infants and children are affected by fecal contamination caused by domestic animals.
WASH Benefits Study/Bangladesh & Kenya - (Website)
The WASH Benefits Study, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, will provide rigorous evidence on the health and developmental benefits of water quality, sanitation, hand washing, and nutritional interventions during the first years of life. The study includes two cluster-randomized controlled trials to measure the impact of the intervention among newborn infants in rural Bangladesh and Kenya. Both will be large in scope and measure primary outcomes after two years of intervention.
Interventions to Improve Disposal of Child Faeces for Preventing Diarrhoea and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection. (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Apr 2014. F Majorin. (Order info)
The objectives of this study are to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the disposal of child feces for preventing diarrhea and soil-transmitted helminth infections. The interventions can include the provision of hardware (for example, nappies [diapers], potties, fecal collection devices, cleaning products to hygienically remove feces, child-friendly squatting slabs or latrines used by children), software (for example, promotion of safe disposal practices), or both. It will include interventions that combine the safe disposal of child feces with other interventions, such as hygiene promotion interventions, and employ subgroup analysis to investigate the impact of these additional interventions.
Child Feces Disposal Practices in Rural Orissa: A Cross Sectional Study. PLoS One, Feb 2014. F Majorin. (Link)
This study conducted surveys with heads of 136 households in 20 villages. It describes defecation and feces disposal practices and explores associations between safe disposal and risk factors. Respondents reported that children commonly defecated on the ground, either inside the household for pre-ambulatory children or around the compound for ambulatory children. Twenty percent of pre-ambulatory children used potties and nappies; the same percentage of ambulatory children defecated in a latrine. The study concludes that in the area surveyed, India’s Total Sanitation Campaign has not led to high levels of safe disposal of child feces.
Why is Child Faeces Disposal Important? 2014. SHARE. (Link)
Fiona Majorin of the SHARE project is currently conducting formative research in urban and rural settings in Orissa, India. The findings from this work will lead to the design of an intervention that will aim to improve safe child feces disposal.
Child Feces Disposal. A Presentation at the Handwashing Behavior Change Think Tank, 2014. (Link)
This brief presentation, given by the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) of The World Bank, explores how to safely manage child feces. WSP and UNICEF are collaborating on 25 country profiles focusing on child feces disposal. The presenter appealed to colleagues at the Think Tank and to the WASH community to share any research, programs, or policies they know of that address child feces disposal by emailing them email@example.com.
Toys and Toilets: Cross-Sectional Study Using Children’s Toys to Evaluate Environmental Faecal Contamination in Rural Bangladeshi Households with Different Sanitation Facilities and Practices. Trop Med Intl Health, Mar 2014. J Vujcic. (Abstract)
This study examined fecal contamination in 100 rural households with and without access to toilets/latrines using toys to measure the level of contamination. In rural Bangladesh, improved sanitation facilities and practices were associated with less environmental contamination. Whether this association is independent of household wealth and whether the difference in contamination improves child health merit further study. The variation found was typical for measures of environmental contamination, and requires large sample sizes to ascertain differences between groups with statistical significance.
“Cleaner, Healthier, Happier” Campaign Unveils New Muppet in Bangladesh, India, and Nigeria. Sesame Workshop India, Mar 2014. (Link)
Sesame Workshop, the nonprofit educational organization behind Sesame Street, unveils the world’s newest Muppet friend, Raya, who will engage children with important messages surrounding proper latrine use and sanitation throughout Bangladesh, India, and Nigeria as part of its Cleaner, Healthier, Happier campaign.
Continued Household Faecal Contamination Following a Sanitation Intervention in Rural Bangladesh. Health and Science Bulletin, Mar 2013. ICDDRB. (Link)
Researchers provided potties and a customized hoe-like tool (sani-scoop) to dispose of child and animal feces to 104 rural households with children under 3 years of age. Despite the reported use of the potties (67 percent) and sani-scoops (89 percent), minimal differences were observed at a three-month follow-up visit with regards to the presence of human feces near households (20 percent or 19/96) compared to baseline (16 percent or 16/104). Similarly, minimal differences in the presence of animal feces were observed in the househol compounds at the three-month follow-up visit (84 percent or 87/104) compared to baseline (96 percent or 92/96). Barriers to the effective use of the distributed hardware included insufficient potty training, inconsistent use of the hardware, and the perception that animal feces are harmless. Practical strategies need to be developed for safe disposal of feces around the household to reduce the fecal contamination of a child’s household environment.
An Improved Tool for Household Faeces Management in Rural Bangladeshi Communities. Trop Med Intl Health, Apr 2013. R Sultana. (Abstract)
The purpose of this study was to explore child defecation and feces management practices in rural Bangladesh with the aim to redesign and pilot a tool to facilitate removal and disposal of feces. Until 3 years of age, a child commonly defecates in the courtyard and occasionally inside the house. A heavy digging hoe was commonly used to remove child feces. Mothers preferred a redesigned “mini-hoe” and found it easier to use for removal and disposal of liquid feces. Promoting modified local tools may contribute to improving environmental sanitation and health.
Q+A – Child-Friendly Toilets Key in Fight to Improve Global Sanitation. Thomas Reuters Foundation, Feb 2013. J Mollins. (Link)
Many unimproved pit toilets in developing countries do not have a stable base, creating unsafe conditions in which a child may actually fall into the pit. Simply providing an improved floor—cement instead of wood, for example—often reduces the fear that children may have. Child-friendly latrines must also provide easy accessibility for children. This means understanding that toilets at different heights allow children of different ages to comfortably use them; in the case of squat toilets, smaller holes reduce the risk of a child slipping into the toilet. Girls have particular needs especially as they reach puberty and require safe and private spaces to manage their sanitary needs.
Baby WASH: Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Prevent Environmental Enteropathy, Stunting, and Anemia in Infants, 2013. M Mbuya. (Presentation)
The new paradigm of WASH in the first 1,000 days includes the following recommendations: dispose of all feces in a latrine, including children’s feces; wash hands with soap after fecal contact and before preparing, eating, or feeding food and also wash baby’s hands; put baby in clean protected area where he cannot access dirt/feces when playing or eating; and treat drinking water with WaterGuard and give treated water to children over 6 months.
Opportunities to Improve Domestic Hygiene Practices through New Enabling Products: A Study of Handwashing Practices and Equipment in Rural Cambodia. Int Health, Nov 2013. M Jenkins. (Link)
Lack of a dedicated place and equipment for hand washing has been associated with poor practice of hand washing with soap in the home in developing communities where the practice is needed to reduce diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections. The study results point to considerable need for and potential beneﬁts and value to routine hand washing practice observed in this setting and support increased rates of hand washing with soap at key times, not just by mothers, but for other household members, including enabling young children to wash hands on their own.
Formative Research on Hygiene Behaviors and Geophagy Among Infants and Young Children and Implications of Exposure to Fecal Bacteria. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, Oct 2013 F Ngure. (Link)
The authors conducted direct observation of 23 caregiver–infant pairs for 130 hours and recorded WASH-related behaviors to identify pathways of fecal–oral transmission of bacteria among infants. In addition to testing fingers, food, and drinking water of infants, three infants were observed actively ingesting handfuls of soil and two ingested chicken feces. Hand washing with soap was not common and drinking water was contaminated with Escherichia coli. A 1-year-old infant ingesting 1 gram of chicken feces in a day and 20 grams of soil from a laundry area of the kitchen yard would consume 4,700,000 to 23,000,000 and 440–4,240 E. coli, respectively, from these sources. Besides standard WASH and nutrition interventions, infants in low-income communities should be protected from exploratory ingestion of chicken feces, soil, and geophagia for optimal child health and growth.
The Epidemiology and Public Health Importance of Toxocariasis: A Zoonosis of Global Importance. Int J Parasitol, Nov 2013. C Macpherson. (Abstract)
Toxocariasis, caused by infection with larvae of Toxocara canis, and to a lesser extent by Toxocara cati and other ascaridoid species, manifests in humans in a range of clinical syndromes. Toxocara canis is one of the most widespread public health and economically important zoonotic parasitic infections humans share with dogs, cats, and wild canids, particularly foxes. This neglected disease has been shown to be especially prevalent among children from socio-economically disadvantaged populations both in the tropics and sub-tropics and in industrialized nations. Human infection occurs by the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs or larvae from a range of wild and domestic hosts.
Improved Sanitation and Its Impact on Children: An Exploration of Sanergy, 2013. H Esper, William Davidson Institute. (Link)
The study found that Sanergy mainly has positive health impacts on its target population. In fact, all children living near Fresh Life Toilets (FLTs)—children of franchisees, customers, and noncustomers alike—benefit from reduced exposure to poor sanitation-related diseases due to improved cleanliness of the surrounding area. Furthermore, human waste from FLTs (separated automatically by the latrine system) is collected daily in a safe manner, treated and disposed correctly, resulting in a slow but steady improvement in land and water quality. Younger children, those age 5 and under, are likely to benefit the most from the improved environment as they have the most vulnerable immune systems and are more likely to be exposed to contaminants from crawling and playing on the ground.
Free-Ranging Chickens in Households in a Periurban Shantytown in Peru: Attitudes and Practices 10 Years after a Community-Based Intervention Project. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, Aug 2013. L Martinez. (Abstract)
Free-ranging chickens are often found in peri-urban communities in developing countries, and their feces can pose a significant public health sanitation problem. Corralling chickens raised in these peri-urban areas in chicken coops has been proposed previously as an intervention to address this problem. Aims of this study were to revisit households in a corralling intervention study conducted in 2000-2001 to investigate current attitudes regarding the impact of raising chickens. Socio-behavioral questionnaires were given sequentially to all study participants; 58 percent of families ceased raising poultry of any kind, whereas 81 percent do not raise chickens in their home. This finding indicates a significant reduction in poultry-raising in our study population since 2000-2001, possibly because of acculturation and/or change in socio-economic status. However, attitudes about corral use for raising poultry were overwhelmingly positive, and the most common reason cited was cleanliness of the home.
Under Five Diarrhea Among Model Household and Non-Model Households in Hawassa, South Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Community Based Survey.BMC Public Health, Feb 2014. B Fekadeselassie. (Link)
This study shows that there is a significantly higher prevalence of diarrhea among children residing in non-model households compared to those residing in model households. According to a study conducted in Keffa Sheka, southwest Ethiopia, fewer number of rooms was a risk factor associated with under-5 diarrhea. This may be due to the fact that when there is overcrowding in the household, the chances for contamination of water and food are high. Other important improvements in household conditions are having a separate sleeping place for domestic animals and having a separate kitchen.
Global Causes of Diarrheal Disease Mortality in Children <5 Years of Age: A Systematic Review. PLoS One, Sept 2013. C Lanata. (Link)
This is the first systematic review attempting to estimate the cause of deaths for 13 enteric pathogens. Rotavirus, calicivirus, enteropathogenic, and enterotoxigenic E. coli cause more than half of all diarrheal deaths in children under age 5 in the world.
Children’s Feces Disposal Practices in Developing Countries and Interventions to Prevent Diarrheal Diseases: A Literature Review, 2004. A Gil, USAID Environmental Health Project. (Link)
Thirty-seven publications covering 33 studies conducted in 16 countries were selected for this review. Few studies have been done describing the excretal disposal practices of young children at the household level and very few have investigated the relationship of those practices with diarrhea.
WASHplus Weeklies will highlight topics such as Urban WASH, Indoor Air Pollution, Innovation, Household Water Treatment and Storage, Hand Washing, Integration, and more. If you would like to feature your organization’s materials in upcoming issues, please send them to Dan Campbell, WASHplus Knowledge Resources Specialist, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Filed under: Sanitary Facilities Tagged: child feces disposal
Interventions to improve disposal of child faeces for preventing diarrhoea and soil-transmitted helminth infection, (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2014, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD011055. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD011055.
Authors: Majorin F, Torondel B, Ka Seen Chan G, Clasen TF.
Interventions: Interventions can include the provision of hardware (for example, nappies (diapers), potties, fecal collection devices, cleaning products to hygienically remove feces, child-friendly squatting slabs or latrines used by children) software (for example, promotion of safe disposal practices), or both. It will include interventions that combine the safe disposal of child feces with other interventions, such as hygiene promotion interventions, and employ subgroup analysis to investigate the impact of these additional interventions.
Filed under: Research Tagged: child feces disposal
On April 11, the Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) partnership will hold its High Level Meeting 2014 in Washington, D.C. SWA is a global partnership of over 90 developing country governments, donors, civil society organizations and other development partners working together to catalyse political leadership and action, improve accountability and use scarce resources more effectively. Partners work towards a common vision of universal access to safe water and adequate sanitation.
Interested individuals can participate in the meeting virtually, in two ways. First, you can watch the live webcast from 2:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. U.S. Eastern Time (18:00 – 20:30 GMT) on April 11 at this link http://live.worldbank.org/sanitation-water-for-all-high-level-meeting. Secondly, you can submit questions to panelists via a form found at the same link.
To find out more about the meeting, including the latest on commitments in water and sanitation from some 50 countries, visit http://sanitationandwaterforall.org.
Below are some additional details about the meeting.
WHO: Ban Ki-moon, United Nations Secretary-General
Dr. Jim Yong Kim, President of the World Bank Group
H.E. John Agyekum Kufuor, Chairman, Sanitation and Water for All Partnership
Anthony Lake, Executive Director of UNICEF
Prof. Judi Wakhungu, Cabinet Secretary, Ministry of Environment, Water and Natural Resources, Republic of Kenya
Dr. Shanta Devarajan, Chief Economist, World Bank
Hon. Sufian Ahmed, Minister of Finance, Ethiopia
Jan Eliasson, United Nations Deputy Secretary-General
Ministers of finance, development, water, health and sanitation from 50 countries
International and national NGOs and development organizations
WHAT: Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) High Level Meeting (HLM) in conjunction with the 2014 Spring Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group
WHEN: Friday,April 11, 2014 , 1400 – 1630 EST (DC time)
WHERE: World Bank Group, IFC Auditorium, 2121 Pennsylvania Avenue N.W., Washington, DC
WHY: 1 in 3 people (2.5 billion) around the world still do not have access to safe sanitation, including 1 billion who must defecate in the open. Almost 600,000 children under five died from diarrhoeal diseases, or about 1,600 per day, in 2012. Three-quarters of a billion people do not have a source of improved drinking water and billions more use unsafe water. These, along with poor sanitation and hygiene, contribute to malnutrition and stunting in 165 million children globally. Top economists agree that the return on investments in water and sanitation is 5 to 1. Two years ago, 48 countries made 415 commitments toward expanding access to safe water and sanitation. This year, countries will assess their progress and make new efforts to continue that momentum.
Filed under: Uncategorized
Improving water, sanitation and hygiene services to low-income urban areas is a highly challenging and complex task. Traditional approaches have often failed to work. We need new approaches and fresh thinking. We need governments, donors and sector professionals genuinely committed to improving services in slum settlements. It’s challenging but it can be done! This guide offers some solutions based around WSUP’s experience: all you have to do is put them into practice!
The guide provides an introduction to urban WASH programming: how to design and implement a pro-poor urban water, sanitation and hygiene programme.
Who is this guide for?
This guide is primarily designed for WASH professionals working in governments, development agencies, funding agencies or civil society organisations. It will also be useful for professionals working for service providers including water utilities, local authorities and in the private sector.
How to use this guide
The guide provides an overview of some key strategies and service delivery models. It’s not intended to be encyclopaedic: it’s a rapid-reference document with the following intended uses:
- To aid the planning, design and implementation of urban WASH programmes.
- To assist with investment planning by service providers.
- To point the reader towards further sources of information and guidance.
The guide is free to download from WSUP’s website: http://www.wsup.com/resource/the-urban-programming-guide
Filed under: Africa, Hygiene Promotion, Progress on Sanitation, Publications, Regions, Resources, Sanitation and Health, South Asia Tagged: advocacy, Bangladesh, finance, Ghana, handwashing, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, sanitation, Training, urban, water
Waste not: Egypt’s refuse collectors regain role at heart of Cairo society | Source/complete article: The Guardian, March 27 2014 |
Excerpts - Zabaleen waste pickers are finally being re-integrated into the city’s services, a decade after they were sidelined.
For the waste pickers that have traditionally made a living sifting through the mountain of discarded litter that blights the streets of Cairo, there has been scant cause for celebration these past 10 years. Marginalised by a 2004 Mubarak goverment directive that placed household waste collection in the hands of multinationals, their existence has been one of ever increasing struggle for steadily declining return.
But change is afoot. Government acceptance that the corporatisation of waste disposal in Egypt‘s capital has been a resounding failure has paved the way for the formal integration of the zabaleen – who, for more than half a century, went door to door gathering the vast majority of household waste in Cairo – into the city’s official refuse collection system.
For a community that has served Cairo well, the government’s U-turn offers a deserved chance to change their lives for the better. Before 2004, the zabaleen would take the rubbish they collected back to their homes on the edge of the city, sort through it, and make a living from selling the salvaged materials to factories and wholesalers. The remaining organic waste would be fed to their pigs, whose meat also brought them a steady income.
But 10 years ago, this informal arrangement came to an abrupt end when the Mubarak government contracted four corporate firms to do the work instead – cutting the 65,000 zabaleen out of the process, and wrecking their collective livelihood. The aim was to professionalise the capital’s waste management.
Government officials now admit that approach was flawed from the start, and for the first time are starting to make the zabaleen‘s role official, giving them uniforms and vehicles.
“The others have failed, be they the government or the foreign companies, and now [the zabaleen] should get a turn, having been sidelined for so long,” said Laila Iskandar, Egypt’s environment minister, who has prioritised the issue since her appointment in July. “They are the people who have the longest experience in refuse collection.”
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, Economic Benefits, Middle East & North Africa, Sanitary Facilities Tagged: Cairo, Egypt, waste pickers, Zabaleen
The fifth in the series of WASH Sustainability Forums will be held on June 30th & July 1st at the RAI in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. As past Forums have focused on concepts of sustainability, this event will advance progress by engaging with practical approaches and tools for applying sanitation, hygiene and water sustainability principles.
Find out more about the Forum
Filed under: Campaigns and Events Tagged: sustainability tools, WASH Sustainability Forum
The BRAC WASH programme has released a short video about their ongoing study in Bangladesh on the use of faecal sludge from double pit latrines as organic fertiliser.
The final evaluation of BRAC WASH I programme identified pit emptying and the safe final disposal of sludge as a key ‘second generation’ challenge for the near future. To address this, BRAC is undertaking action research to ensure the safe reuse of faecal sludge in the BRAC WASH II programme, answering the following questions:
- Does the faecal sludge comply with the WHO Guidelines on microbiological quality after one year of storage?
- What is the nutrient content of the faecal sludge?
- Is it possible to make faecal sludge-based organic fertiliser production commercially viable?
In 2013, the UK-based School of Civil Engineering at the University of Leeds won a BRAC WASH II research call for secondary treatment options for faecal sludge. Their project is called Value at the end of the Sanitation Value-chain (VeSV).
The University of Leeds is working together with three other partners: Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), NGO Forum for Public Health (Bangladesh), and IWMI International Water Management Institute (Sri Lanka).
Filed under: Multimedia, Research, South Asia, Wastewater Management Tagged: BRAC, BRAC WASH II programme, faecal sludge management, fertilisers
From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – Best toilet award goes to…a group of Georgia Tech undergraduate students called Team Sanivation!
The students have been working with our Global WASH team and the nonprofit Sanivation and won the prestigious InVenture Prize for their design of the Safi Choo Toilet.
Some say this award is the most esteemed (and hardest to earn) that Georgia Tech has and was presented on live TV on Wednesday. InVenture is an annual contest that rewards undergraduate students for big innovations that aim to solve the world’s problems and attracted 560 students this year.
Team Sanivation received $20,000, a free U.S. patent filing by Georgia Tech’s Office of Technology Licensing, and a spot in this summer’s class of Flashpoint, a Georgia Tech startup accelerator program. They also received the $5,000 People’s Choice Award.
Thanks to Ciara O’Reilly, Jen Murphy and Jamae Morris for their hard work on this project.
Filed under: Africa Tagged: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, InVenture Prize, Kenya, Sanivation
WASH/Nutrition Literature Update – March 2014
The March 2014 literature update includes details on an upcoming USAID-sponsored WASH nutrition presentation on April 1, 2014, and the March 2014 issue of USAID’s Global Waters magazine with descriptions of USAID WASH and nutrition efforts in Liberia and other countries. Other resources include a 2014 WHO report on childhood stunting, an award winning poster on food hygiene, an enteropathy study in Zimbabwe, and other resources.
April 1, 2014 – Integrating WASH and Nutrition: Current Approaches, Lessons Learned, and Considerations for Future Programming, a presentation by Francis Ngure, Water and Sanitation Program. Date: Tuesday, April 1, 2014 | Time: 3-4:30 pm | Place: USAID, Room 4.08 E/F, Ronald Reagan Bldg. (RSVP/additional info)
You are invited to a presentation on current strategic and operational approaches linking WASH and nutrition programming based on an investigation conducted by the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program. The session will include preliminary findings and lessons learned from field examples that will inform future programming.
WASH Benefits Study/Bangladesh & Kenya - (Website)
The WASH Benefits Study will provide rigorous evidence on the health and developmental benefits of water quality, sanitation, hand washing, and nutritional interventions during the first years of life. The study includes two cluster-randomized controlled trials to measure the impact of intervention among newborn infants in rural Bangladesh and Kenya. Both will be large in scope and measure primary outcomes after two years of intervention.
Stunting Is Characterized by Chronic Inflammation in Zimbabwean Infants. PLoS One, Feb 2014. A Prendergas. (Link)
Stunting began in utero and was associated with low maternal IGF-1 levels at birth. Inflammatory markers were higher in cases than controls from 6 weeks of age and were associated with lower levels of IGF-1 throughout infancy. Higher levels of CRP and AGP during infancy were associated with stunting. These findings suggest that an extensive enteropathy occurs during infancy and that low-grade chronic inflammation may impair infant growth.
Could Poor Sanitation Begin Stunting Children in Utero? 2014. D Spears. (Blog post)
Evidence is building up that enteropathy may matter a great deal. Andrew Prendergast and nine coauthors published a new paper in PLoS One: “Stunting Is Characterized by Chronic Inflammation in Zimbabwean Infants.” They collected data on about 14,000 infants at periodic intervals in their first 18 months of life. They ended up with a sample of 101 stunted infants—meaning too short—and 101 non-stunted infants in order to have a healthy comparison group. The paper is important because it speaks to the hypothesis of enteropathy as a determinant of stunting among poor children who grow up exposed to intestinal disease.
Water, Sanitation, and the Prevention of Stunting: An Holistic View of Why Food Isn’t Enough, 2014. J Griffiths. (Presentation)
Poor populations will likely eat aflatoxins in foods; many will have environmental enteropathy and live without good water or sanitation. Lacking WASH and barriers to fecal contamination, they will have a different spectrum of gut bacteria than people with good WASH.
Water, Energy and Food. USAID Global Waters, March 2014. USAID. (Link)
This issues contains descriptions of USAID WASH and nutrition efforts in Liberia and other countries.
Design and Test of an Intervention to Change 5 Food Hygiene Behaviours in Nepal, 2014. O Gautam. (Link to poster)
This campaign used modern behavior change science, moving away from standard educational approaches. Campaign activities such as changing kitchen settings, use of emotional drivers, eye danglers, and engaging in events such as games or competitions (i.e., clean kitchen, ideal mother, safe food hygiene zone) encouraged mothers to adopt and practice five key food hygiene behaviors. Significant improvements in targeted behaviors indicate that it is possible to change multiple food hygiene behaviors employing emotional motivators.
Effects of Malnutrition on Children’s Immunity to Bacterial Antigens in Northern Senegal. Amer Jnl Trop Med Hyg, Mar 2014. L Gaayeb. (Abstract/order info)
The relationship among village, time of visits, and levels of antibodies to tetanus showed that environmental factors played a role in modulating humoral immunity to tetanus vaccine over time. Therefore, these results show that nutritional status can specifically alter the efficacy of long-lasting immunity to tetanus.
The Effect of Malnutrition on Norovirus Infection. mBio, Mar 2014. D Hickman. (Link)
To probe the effects of malnutrition on an enteric infection in a well-controlled system devoid of other environmental and genetic variability, we studied norovirus infection in a mouse model. We have revealed that malnourished mice develop more severe norovirus infections and they fail to mount effective memory immunity to a secondary challenge. This is of particular importance because malnourished children generally mount less effective immune responses to oral vaccines, and we can now use our new model system to probe the immunological basis of this impairment.
Eﬀect of a Behaviour-Change Intervention on Handwashing with Soap in India (SuperAmma): A Cluster-Randomised Trial. Lancet Global Health, Feb 2014. A Biran.(Link)
This study shows that substantial increases in hand washing with soap can be achieved using a scalable intervention based on emotional drivers.
Prevalence of Anemia and Its Risk Factors Among Lactating Mothers in Myanmar. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, Mar 2014. A Zhao. (Abstract/order info)
In Myanmar, 60 percent of the population consists of mothers and children, and they are the groups most vulnerable to anemia. The objectives of this study are to determine (1) the anemia prevalence among lactating women and (2) the risk factors associated with anemia. Factors of malnutrition, self-reported symptoms of night blindness or poor dark adaptation, lack of primary education experience, low family annual capita income, drinking spring or river water, and drinking unboiled water were associated with anemia. To promote health in lactating women, a comprehensive intervention is needed in these regions.
Can an Integrated Approach Reduce Child Vulnerability to Anaemia? Evidence from Three African Countries. PLoS One, Mar 2014. K Siekmans. (Link)
Addressing the complex, multi-factorial causes of childhood anemia is best done through integrated packages of interventions. We hypothesized that due to reduced child vulnerability, a “buffering” of risk associated with known causes of anemia would be observed among children living in areas benefiting from a community-based health and nutrition program intervention.
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Association Between Water and Sanitation Environment and Maternal Mortality, 2014. SHARE Project. (Link)
There is evidence of association between sanitation and maternal mortality and between water and maternal mortality. Both associations are of substantial magnitude and are maintained after adjusting for confounders.
Review Paper: The Uneven Progress of Sanitation in India. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development , 4(1) 2014. A Ghosh. (Link)
The 2001 and 2011 Census of India returns are used to document the proportion of households with access to a latrine on their premises, in the different regions, states, and districts of India and track their progress toward meeting Millennium Development Goals. This analysis found wide regional differences and explored the causes for these variations. One possible cause is the close association between district sanitation coverage and female literacy, suggesting an important role for education.
2014: The Year We Defeat Child Hunger? The Guardian, Mar 2014. S Gillespie. (Link)
Building on last year’s momentum, nutrition projects have the potential to improve the lives of vast numbers of children, as long as we learn from past successes and failures.
Practical Toolkit for Integrated Programming for Improved Nutrition, 2014. P Schmied. (Link)
People in Need’s approach to nutrition—Integrated Programming for Improved Nutrition— is based on the recognition that undernutrition is caused by multiple factors that cannot be addressed by a single-sector intervention.
Childhood Stunting: Challenges and Opportunities Report, 2014. WHO. (Link)
This report summarizes a roundtable session that sought to reflect on how countries could operationalize their commitment to reduce stunting and other forms of child malnutrition. Three “models” originating at national, subnational, and grassroots levels, respectively, were considered as entry points for agenda setting in stunting reduction. Far from being mutually exclusive, coherence among the three models is central to the success of stunting reduction efforts.
2013 Global Food Policy Report, 2014. International Food Policy Research Institute.(Link)
IFPRI’s flagship report examines the major food policy issues, developments, and decisions of 2013. It puts into perspective the year’s food policy successes and setbacks, and suggests how to advance policies that will improve the food situation for poor people in developing countries.
This literature review is prepared on behalf of the the USAID Community of Practice on WASH, Nutrition, and Food Security was established to facilitate a dialog between and among the staff at USAID and partner organizations. The goals are to encourage discussion around unanswered questions for integrated programming and to provide a clearinghouse for informative articles, events, and recent studies and datasets.
Filed under: Sanitation and Health Tagged: WASH nutrition integration
March 2014 – Unilever’s health soap Lifebuoy has this month announced the results of its Help A Child Reach 5 handwashing programmes launched in Thesgora, India, noting an overwhelming drop in incidence of diarrhoea from 36% to 5%.
The decrease in diarrhoea in this village – known for having one of the highest rates in India of this deadly yet preventable disease – was observed over the period of Lifebuoy’s intervention in an independent evaluation of 1485 households with children aged below 12 years, conducted by Nielsen in September 2013.
Lifebuoy’s Help A Child Reach 5 campaign aims to eradicate preventable deaths from diseases like diarrhoea one village at a time through teaching lifesaving handwashing habits. The campaign was launched with an award winning film http://www.youtube.com/helpachildreach5 and handwashing initiatives in Thesgora, a village in Madhya Pradesh.
These new results show that handwashing programmes have significant positive impact on both the handwashing behaviours and health of a community. Lifebuoy’s handwashing programmes are now being rolled out to villages across a further eight countries and scaled up in India to reach 45 million people.
Filed under: Hygiene Promotion, South Asia Tagged: handwashing, India, Lifebuoy, Unilever