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The snails spreading fever across Africa

11 February 2016 14:09 (America/New_York)

The snails spreading fever across Africa | Source: CNN Health, Feb 9, 2016 |

According to WHO, 90% of those requiring treatment for schistosomiasis live in Africa, but most of them live around lake and river regions. The factor helping the disease persist, is poor sanitation. 

“The problem that sub Saharan Africa has is a lack of fresh water, safe water, and adequate sanitation,” says Fenwick. “People who need to urinate and defecate tend to do so on the open ground, and their excreta can be washed into water where the eggs will then infect snails.”

Infections primarily affect young children, but symptoms can take years to appear, making finding and treating those infected a challenge.

Read the complete article.


Filed under: Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: Schistosomiasis

David Kariuki – Recovering energy from waste can power Africa

11 February 2016 13:45 (America/New_York)

Recovering energy from waste can power Africa | Source: by David Kariuki, Cleanleap, Feb 10 2016.

Production of electricity from waste has the potential of providing up to 83.8 TeraWatt hours (TWh), which is about 20% of the electricity needed in Africa by 2025. This is according to a study co-authored by the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC). However, this requires stringent waste management policies to be put in place, and today Africa lacks the adequate infrastructure needed to install these environmentally friendly methods.

Waste to Energy Project

Like some other parts of the world, most of the waste in Africa is burned without tapping the potential of gases (which usually end in pollution) or dumped in landfills without protecting groundwater. Many of the developed countries that have a high percentage of waste to energy recovery, have strict emissions laws that regulate waste handling.

Waste in Africa, according to JRC, can be used to produce energy in two ways. The first is using Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration plants where the trash is burnt to produce steam that turns turbines. The report notes that these are few in this part of the world because of the high initial costs of establishment. Strict measures are needed to ensure the plants do not pollute the environment via toxic by-products.

Although most of Africa buries or dumps waste that when decomposing releases methane and carbon dioxide gases naturally. These gases can be captured for heat or burnt in gas turbines, internal combustion engines, and steam boilers to produce electricity. This is the second method.

Waste energy recovery could act as one stone killing two birds because it provides power, and at the same time helps deal with the increasing waste problem in Africa. The continent is expecting  incredible growth in population and urbanization, which is to be accompanied with production of more waste. The reports points out that energy recovery from waste could help alleviate energy poverty in countries such as Central African Republic, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Sierra Leone, Rwanda and Somalia, which have poor access to electricity and low electricity consumption per capita.

The potential could be much higher since the 20% figure is based on urban waste calculations alone according to the report. Most of waste around the world is concentrated around urban centers.

A few projects already underway

Just recently, Cleanleap wrote about Africa’s first and largest Anaerobic Digester (AD) which will generate 2.4 MW of installed power that will be channeled to Kenya’s national electricity grid. It first converts biomass waste (organic waste being sourced from nearby farms) to biogas and then the biogas is burned to produce electricity and heat. In addition to using 50,000 tones of organic crop waste each year, it will produce 35,000 tones of nitrogen-rich matter as a by-product natural fertilizer. The first phase of the project is now complete.

My colleague also recently wrote about an Ethiopia’s 50-year-old towering mountain of waste Koshe being converted into power. Koshe Waste-to-Energy facility will generate 50 megawatts of clean energy by burning 350,000 tones of waste annually. It will help deal with the waste menace. Construction of the factory started last year and was to complete in 18 months.

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation are also partnering to see the first Omni Processor factory pilot project that converts sewage into drinking water and power. The first factory will be based in Senegaland, although it is fronted as a project to mainly reinvent the toilet, it will produce 150W of power and the success of the pilot project would prove that the solution can be duplicated all over developing countries. It involves boiling of sludge to high temperatures to produce steam, which is then used to run steam engines. Construction of the factory begun last year.

These are just but a few of the thousands, but yet insufficient, projects being pursued to produce power from waste.

The issue of power shortages cannot be re-emphasized and introduction of off-grid solutions is seen as helpful towards increasing power access. In short, in addition to bringing a revolution to how we generate power so much needed in Africa, waste-to-energy projects will also help deal with sanitation problem in developing countries, one of the largest problems facing many of these nations and which is still responsible for many health problems.


Filed under: Sanitary Facilities, Uncategorized Tagged: Energy, reuse

USAID & Water Information Survey

5 February 2016 8:55 (America/New_York)

USAID is developing a new web portal that could potentially serve as a centralized resource for Agency staff, partners and the public on global water issues. The portal is being designed as a hub for news, technical content, program and country information and data on Agency-wide water sector activities. 

The below brief and voluntary survey will help USAID determine what content and features would be of greatest use to the water and development community. The entire survey should take less than 5 minutes for you to complete.

For more information please contact the E3/Water Office – Communications and Knowledge Management team at waterteam@usaid.gov.

Link to the survey: http://ow.ly/XC1Xq


Filed under: Web sites Tagged: surveys, USAID

Dec 18 Webinar – WASHing away diseases: two hands at a time

5 February 2016 8:52 (America/New_York)

Dec 18 Webinar, 9:00 a.m EST- WASHing away diseases: two hands at a time

Please join the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing and the USAID/WASHplus project for a webinar discussing why water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) matter to neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), and addressing the need for new approaches for multi-sector initiatives to promote equity, poverty alleviation, health, and well-being.

Featuring speakers from WaterAid, Sightsavers, the FHI 360-led USAID/WASHplus project, and USAID, this webinar is an excellent opportunity for those working in both WASH and NTDs to learn about the global landscape of WASH/NTD strategy and glean practical insights from projects that are operating in this context.

This webinar will include brief presentations on:

  • The link between WASH and NTDs
  • How we can work together to achieve common goals through the World Health Organization’s Joint WASH-NTD strategy; and
  • Integration in practice.About the speakers:
  • Renuka Bery, MPH, Senior Program Manager for the USAID/WASHplus project, has an extensive background in WASH integration.
  • Sophie Boisson, PhD, Technical Officer for Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health at the World Health Organization.
  • Edouard Tianhoun, RN, MSc, WASH-NTD Coordinator for the USAID/WASHplus Burkina Faso pilot project, has been in involved in WASH programs in his native Burkina Faso since 2011.
  • Yael Velleman, MSc, Senior Policy Analyst on Health and Sanitation, leads WaterAid’s strategy, advocacy, and research agenda on health.
  • Merri Weinger, MPH, Senior Environmental Health Advisor at USAID’s Bureau for Global Health, has over 30 years of experience in health programs at USAID, WHO, and PAHO.
  • Geordie Woods, MPH, Technical Adviser-NTDs at Sightsavers, specializes in health behavior and strategic communication with a technical focus that includes NTDs and WASH.

Filed under: Hygiene Promotion, Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: neglected tropical diseases

USAID & Water Information Survey

4 February 2016 14:35 (America/New_York)

USAID is developing a new web portal that could potentially serve as a centralized resource for Agency staff, partners and the public on global water issues. The portal is being designed as a hub for news, technical content, program and country information and data on Agency-wide water sector activities. 

The below brief and voluntary survey will help USAID determine what content and features would be of greatest use to the water and development community. The entire survey should take less than 5 minutes for you to complete.

For more information please contact the E3/Water Office – Communications and Knowledge Management team at waterteam@usaid.gov.

Link to the survey: http://ow.ly/XC1Xq


Filed under: Web sites Tagged: surveys, USAID

WSUP – Behavior change in Dhaka

4 February 2016 13:30 (America/New_York)

USAID and Water Information Survey

4 February 2016 12:11 (America/New_York)

USAID is developing a new web portal that could potentially serve as a centralized resource for Agency staff, partners and the public on global water issues. The portal is being designed as a hub for news, technical content, program and country information and data on Agency-wide water sector activities. 

The below brief and voluntary survey will help USAID determine what content and features would be of greatest use to the water and development community. The entire survey should take less than 5 minutes for you to complete.

For more information please contact the E3/Water Office – Communications and Knowledge Management team at waterteam@usaid.gov.

Link to the survey: http://ow.ly/XC1Xq


Filed under: Uncategorized Tagged: surveys, USAID

Faecal Sludge Management: WASH in Emergencies Problem Exploration Report

4 February 2016 12:02 (America/New_York)

WASH in Emergencies Problem Exploration Report: Faecal Sludge Management, 2016. Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF).

This report puts forward a few areas for further exploration and development.

Easy to implement, portable toilet systems: New toilet system designs are needed that can allow for the better management of faecal sludge accumulation and can facilitate regular emptying. The designs should also consider the integration of additive mixing and dosing devices.

Standardised guidelines for assessing existing sanitation equipment: Guidelines could propose a method for evaluating available local equipment such as sewer trucks (e.g. number, state, storage capacity, spare parts and connecting), and other tools such as de-sludging pumps.

New protocols for the treatment and control of faecal sludge accumulation: Studies have shown that it is more reliable to consider the control of the accumulation before the latrine is in use, than to try to absolutely reduce existing sludge volume. It is clear that some additives work but further research is needed to understand how and when to use these. Research and experimentation studies should continue to test and compare bio-additives, as well as define new protocols and objectives.

Evaluation of speedy aerobic and anaerobic treatment concepts: Additional research needs to be carried out to assess the field effectiveness of both speedy aerobic and anaerobic treatment concepts in reducing the volume of sludge collected from pits. For anaerobic process concepts, feasibility studies can also help determine if biogas resulting from the process can be used for downstream application.

Guidelines for assessing and improving dumping sites: Practical guidelines for assessing existing dumping sites would be very beneficial, as well as suggested solutions and options on how to improve the capacity of storing and disposing of faecal sludge during a period of emergency. However, even with such guidelines, the process would not be straightforward as setting up or improving a dumping site requires skilled people, qualified in the area of environmental engineering.


Filed under: Progress on Sanitation, Sanitary Facilities, Uncategorized Tagged: faecal sludge management

Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia

4 February 2016 11:34 (America/New_York)

Below are links to the abstracts of 3 interesting WASH studies that can be downloaded free of charge from the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia
Authors: Molly K. Miller-Petrie*, Lindsay Voigt, Lyn McLennan, Sandy Cairncross and Marion W. Jenkins

Abstract/order info: http://goo.gl/o252V9

In Cambodia, children’s feces are rarely disposed of in an improved sanitation facility. This study examines current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management of infant and young child (IYC) feces in households with access to improved sanitation.

A survey was conducted with the primary caregiver of a child under 5 years of age in 130 homes with an improved latrine in 21 villages across two provinces in Cambodia. Two focus group discussions per province were conducted after the survey to obtain caregiver feedback on new enabling products for hygienic management. Among caregivers, 63% reported child feces disposal in an improved latrine but only 36% reported doing so consistently.

Besides child age, years of latrine ownership, caregiver age, consistency of adult latrine use, and presence of child feces management tools in the latrine were associated with hygienic disposal. The youngest caretakers with the newest latrines and youngest children were least likely to dispose of IYC feces hygienically, representing a key target group for interventions to improve hygienic disposal in Cambodia. Reusable diapers, child-friendly potties, and possibly latrine seats, that offer child safety, time and cost savings, and easy disposal and cleaning could potentially facilitate hygienic disposal for these ages.

A Cluster Randomized Controlled Evaluation of the Health Impact of a Novel Antimicrobial Hand Towel on the Health of Children Under 2 Years Old in Rural Communities in Nyanza Province, Kenya
Authors: Rachel B. Slayton*, Jennifer L. Murphy, Jamae Morris, Sitnah Hamidah Faith, Jared Oremo, Aloyce Odhiambo, Tracy Ayers, Shawna J. Feinman, Allison C. Brown and Robert E. Quick

Abstract/order info: http://goo.gl/L76AEH

To assess the health impact of reusable, antimicrobial hand towels, we conducted a cluster randomized, yearlong field trial. At baseline, we surveyed mothers, and gave four towels plus hygiene education to intervention households and education alone to controls. At biweekly home visits, we asked about infections in children < 2 years old and tested post-handwashing hand rinse samples of 20% of mothers for Escherichia coli.

At study’s conclusion, we tested 50% of towels for E. coli. Baseline characteristics between 188 intervention and 181 control households were similar. Intervention and control children had similar rates of diarrhea (1.47 versus 1.48, P = 0.99), respiratory infections (1.38 versus 1.48, P = 0.92), skin infections (1.76 versus 1.79, P = 0.81), and subjective fever (2.62 versus 3.40, P = 0.04) per 100 person-visits.

Post-handwashing hand contamination was similar; 67% of towels exhibited E. coli contamination. Antimicrobial hand towels became contaminated over time, did not improve hand hygiene, or prevent diarrhea, respiratory infections, or skin infections.

Consistency of Use and Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices Among Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Drinking Water at Home: A Case Study in Zambia
Authors: Ghislaine Rosa*, Paul Kelly and Thomas Clasen

Abstract/order info: http://goo.gl/ocN3bH

Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease, if used correctly and consistently. While international monitoring suggests that 1.8 billion people practice HWT, these estimates are based on household surveys that may overstate the level of consistent use and do not address microbiological effectiveness.

We sought to examine how HWT is practiced among households identified as HWT users according to international monitoring standards. Case studies were conducted in urban and rural Zambia. After a baseline survey (urban: 203 households, rural: 276 households) to identify HWT users, 95 urban and 82 rural households were followed up for 6 weeks.

Consistency of HWT reporting was low; only 72.6% of urban and 50.0% of rural households reported to be HWT users in the subsequent visit. Similarly, availability of treated water was low, only 23.3% and 4.2% of urban and rural households, respectively, had treated water on all visits. Drinking water was significantly worse than source water in both settings.

Only 19.6% of urban and 2.4% of rural households had drinking water free of thermotolerant coliforms on all visits. Our findings raise questions about the value of the data gathered through the international monitoring of HWT practices as predictors of water quality in the home.


Filed under: Hygiene Promotion, Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: hand towels, infant feces

Topic of the Week – January 2016 Handwashing Studies

2 February 2016 12:44 (America/New_York)

Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Feb;22(2):233-41. doi: 10.3201/eid2202.151175.

Randomized Controlled Trial of Hospital-Based Hygiene and Water Treatment Intervention (CHoBI7) to Reduce Cholera. George CM, Monira S, Sack DA, et al.

The risk for cholera infection is >100 times higher for household contacts of cholera patients during the week after the index patient seeks hospital care than it is for the general population. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which promotes hand washing with soap and treatment of water. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 219 intervention household contacts of 82 cholera patients and 220 control contacts of 83 cholera patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during 2013-2014. Intervention contacts had significantly fewer symptomatic Vibrio cholerae infections than did control contacts and 47% fewer overall V. cholerae infections. Intervention households had no stored drinking water with V. cholerae and 14 times higher odds ofhand washing with soap at key events during structured observation on surveillance days 5, 6, or 7. CHoBI7 presents a promising approach for controlling cholera among highly susceptible household contacts of cholera patients.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Jan 19. pii: 15-0335. [Epub ahead of print]

Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia. Lawrence JJ1, Yeboah-Antwi K2, Biemba G2, Ram PK2, Osbert N2, Sabin LL2, Hamer DH2.

Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called “triggering.” This qualitative study explored community members’ and stakeholders’ sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children’s opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Jan 14;13(1). pii: E129. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13010129.

Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: NudgingHandwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh. Dreibelbis R1, Kroeger A2, Hossain K3, Venkatesh M4, Ram PK5.

Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashinginfrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

Arch Dis Child. 2016 Jan;101(1):42-50. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-308875. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

Effectiveness of hand hygiene interventions in reducing illness absence among children in educational settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Willmott M1, Nicholson A1, Busse H1, MacArthur GJ1, Brookes S1, Campbell R1.

OBJECTIVE: 

To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish the effectiveness ofhandwashing in reducing absence and/or the spread of respiratory tract (RT) and/or gastrointestinal (GI) infection among school-aged children and/or staff in educational settings.

DESIGN:

Randomised-controlled trials (RCTs).

SETTING:

Schools and other settings with a formal educational component in any country.

PATIENTS:

Children aged 3-11 years, and/or staff working with them.

INTERVENTION:

Interventions with a hand hygiene component.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Incidence of RT or GI infections or symptoms related to such infections; absenteeism; laboratory results of RT and/or GI infections.

RESULTS:

Eighteen cluster RCTs were identified; 13 school-based, 5 in child day care facilities or preschools. Studies were heterogeneous and had significant quality issues including small numbers of clusters and participants and inadequate randomisation. Individual study results suggest interventions may reduce children’s absence, RT infection incidence and symptoms, and laboratory confirmed influenza-like illness. Evidence of impact on GI infection or symptoms was equivocal.

CONCLUSIONS:

Studies are generally not well executed or reported. Despite updating existing systematic reviews and identifying new studies, evidence of the effect of hand hygiene interventions on infection incidence in educational settings is mostly equivocal but they may decrease RT infection among children. These results update and add to knowledge about this crucial public health issue in key settings with a vulnerable population. More robust, well reported cluster RCTs which learn from existing studies, are required.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 Jan;62(1):150-6. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000901.

Predictors of Stunting Among Children Ages 0 to 59 Months in a Rural Region of Armenia. Demirchyan A1, Petrosyan V, Sargsyan V, Hekimian K.

OBJECTIVES:

The prevalence of stunting in Armenia more than doubled since the 1990s. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and the predictors of stunting among children younger than 5 years in a rural region of Armenia, Talin, targeted by the World Vision (WV) nutrition interventions.

METHODS:

Anthropometric measurements were conducted among a large representative sample of children 0 to 59 months old to identify the prevalence of stunting. Children identified as stunted were included in a case-control study as cases and compared with normally growing controls randomly selected from the same pool of children. The mothers of cases and controls were interviewed. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the predictors of stunting.

RESULTS:

Of 739 measured children, 101 (13.7%) were undernourished, including 94 (12.7%) who were stunted. The fitted logistic regression model identified 7 independent predictors of stunting, of which 4 were protective: mother’s height, child’s birth length, number of child’s hand washings per day, and the full set of WV interventions carried out in the community; whereas 3 were risk factors, that is, never/rarely using soap during hand washing, being the fourth or later child in the family, and family size.

CONCLUSIONS:

The study findings suggest that although WV nutrition interventions have shown impact, there is also a nonnutritional pathway of child stunting in rural Armenia. Thus, antistunting interventions should include sanitation and hygienic measures along with adequate perinatal care and maternal and child nutrition to further reduce childhood stunting, ensuring long-term health benefits for children not only in rural Armenia but also in rural communities in other low/middle-income countries.


Filed under: Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: handwashing

Angela Kearney on Sanitation and Stunting

2 February 2016 12:05 (America/New_York)

In a recent interview in the Pakistan Television programme ‘Diplomatic Enclave’, conducted by Omar Khalid Butt, UNICEF Representative in Pakistan Ms. Angela Kearney sheds light on the priorities of UNICEF and the targets and achievements of the UN Children’s Fund in Pakistan.

In this clip she speaks about access to sanitation and stunting in Pakistan, and the relation between the two problems. She also sheds light on the progress Pakistan has made in the recent years in achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) on sanitation.


Filed under: Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: Pakistan, stunting

Are studies underestimating the effects of sanitation on child nutrition?

2 February 2016 11:41 (America/New_York)

Are studies underestimating the effects of sanitation on child nutrition? – Authors’ reply. Lancet Global Health, Feb 1, 2016. Authors: Amy J Pickering, Maria Laura Alzua.

Should child growth replace diarrhoea as the primary child health outcome for sanitation trials? We appreciate Derek Headey’s comment in relation to our trial that the window of opportunity to plausibly affect growth faltering is from in utero up to 24 months, and therefore that sanitation trials should focus growth assessments in children with exposure to the intervention who are younger than 24 months.

Ongoing sanitation trials in rural Kenya (NCT01704105), Bangladesh (NCT01590095), and Zimbabwe (NCT01824940) have chosen to enrol target children in utero precisely because of the recognition that child stunting and environmental enteric dysfunction can begin before birth.

However, the effect of enteric pathogen exposure—either through reduced acute diarrhoea or asymptomatic infections—is likely to be one of many causes of linear growth faltering. In some settings, competing risks such as poor nutrition and non-enteric infections (eg, malaria) could overshadow improved sanitation’s contribution to growth.

Child growth is also unable to capture potential health benefits of sanitation interventions for children older than 2 years. For these reasons, it could be premature to rely exclusively on anthropometry measurement before additional sanitation intervention trials successfully show an effect on child growth.

Although we agree with Headey that caregiver-reported diarrhoea can be a biased outcome, we see value in measuring the effect of sanitation interventions on more objective indicators of enteric infections. Notably, recently developed molecular techniques allow for the simultaneous detection of many relevant diarrhoeal pathogens in stool samples, including bacteria, viruses, protozoans, and soil-transmitted helminths.

Antibody measures of infection in saliva, blood, and stools provide additional multiplex opportunities to objectively measure enteric pathogens. Continued advancements in molecular techniques are reducing costs and increasing the feasibility of their use in low-income settings.

Although the high incidence of asymptomatic infections precludes the use of pathogen presence as a direct indicator for clinical diarrhoea, enteric pathogen infection status would be a valuable outcome to understand the ability of sanitation interventions to interrupt transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens.

We propose that enteric pathogen detection be deemed a complementary outcome to child growth for a more comprehensive understanding of the potential benefits of sanitation trials.


Filed under: Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: WASH nutrition integration

USAID solicitation – Sustainable WASH Systems

29 January 2016 11:07 (America/New_York)

This BAA serves to inform the public of the opportunity for potential funding from USAID to address the sustainability of WASH service delivery.  The BAA includes specific requirements for evaluation criteria and administrative information, such as formatting and deadlines.

USAID and other development organizations struggle with the sustainability of their WASH sector investments.  Over the last 20 years, failed hand pumps in Africa represent a total lost investment of between $1.2 and $1.5 billion, with 30-40% of rural water systems failing prematurely, and more than half of all subsidized toilets are unused, misused or abandoned. 

Fewer than 5% of WASH projects are visited after project conclusion.  USAID defines sustainable WASH as being “achieved when country partners and communities take ownership of the service and there are local systems to deliver inputs needed to maintain results and deliver impacts beyond the life of USAID projects.”

Through the BAA process, USAID seeks to address the lack of sustainability of WASH programming by partnering with one or more organizations with advanced technical knowledge of the WASH sector and systems analysis.

This partnership will design, develop, and test a new methodology for using systems analysis, multi-stakeholder initiatives and continuous learning and information dissemination to improve the impact and sustainability of USAID WASH programming.

The Performance Objective is to develop and test a systems-based methodology for improved sustainability in WASH programming that will be used to better understand and engage the local system in their WASH activities.


Filed under: Progress on Sanitation, Uncategorized Tagged: USAID

The anatomy of a campaign: ‘If men had periods’ by WaterAid

27 January 2016 12:56 (America/New_York)

The anatomy of a campaign: ‘If men had periods’ by WaterAid | Source: The Guardian, Jan 25, 2016.

WaterAid’s campaign to raise awareness about the importance of menstrual hygiene playfully imagines a world where men have periods.

Back story Menstrual Hygiene Day (28 May) is often met with squeamish disgust. Visibly shocked, people ask: “There’s actually a day for that?!”

At WaterAid, we asked why menstruation provokes such a response? And I asked myself why, as a woman in my early 30s, do I still hide my tampon up my sleeve when I go to the office toilet?

If Men had Periods – manpon campaign by Wateraid Photograph: WaterAid

More than one billion women don’t have access to somewhere safe to go to the toilet when they’re on their period. Often forced to find somewhere after dark, this is both undignified and dangerous. A lack of toilets in schools means that young girls often drop out of education when they reach puberty, limiting their life chances.

Without access to proper sanitary products, many women and girls use rags, newspaper and even mud, which can lead to infections. In rural Nepal and northern India the outlawed practice of chhaupadi – being ostracised from your family during your monthly cycle – still prevails.

In the UK, we use extraordinarily inventive euphemisms for menstruation – phrases like “I’m on”, “It’s that time of the month”, “the painters and decorators are in” are common, but starting your period should be a celebrated rite of passage, not an invisible act.

Development issues can be tough to translate to a UK audience, but periods are a relatable experience and we decided to use that to our advantage.

Read the complete article.


Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: menstrual hygiene management, WaterAid

The Sustainable Development Goals Explained: Clean Water and Sanitation

27 January 2016 12:44 (America/New_York)
Published on Sep 17, 2015

United Nations – What makes it so difficult for some people to have access to water? Why are there millions of people in the world without access to a toilet? Does this issue only affect developing countries? Water and Sanitation Expert Leanne Burney from UN DESA answers all these questions on Goal #6.

Find out more about water and sanitation at http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopm….

For a list of all the goals see: http://ow.ly/Sj391

 


Filed under: Progress on Sanitation, Uncategorized Tagged: SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals

Toilet tech proves that where there’s muck there’s brass

27 January 2016 12:37 (America/New_York)

Toilet tech proves that where there’s muck there’s brass | Source: by Gabriella Mulligan, BBC News, Jan 26 2016.

Nearly a third of the world’s population still has no access to safe, hygienic sanitation. This means they have to go the toilet out in the open – in the bush, fields or forests.

This leads to about 700,000 deaths each year from related diseases, says the World Bank, and stops children getting a proper education.

Sanergy turns human waste into organic fertiliser and sells it to farmers.

“Sanitation lies at the root of many other development challenges, as poor sanitation impacts public health, education, and the environment,” says Jyoti Shukla, senior manager of the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP).

So what are the technology innovations helping to address this issue, and is the private sector better placed than the public sector to implement these solutions?

‘Cool’ toilets

One of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals is to make universal access to safe sanitation and water a reality by 2030.

“The stakes are high: stunting and malnutrition are directly related to poor sanitation; quality of learning and productivity is affected by sanitation; and dignity and empowerment of women and girls is influenced by how we deliver sanitation,” says Ms Shukla.

Read the complete article.


Filed under: Progress on Sanitation, Uncategorized Tagged: innovation

Topic of the week: Community-Led Total Sanitation

27 January 2016 11:36 (America/New_York)

Financing sanitation for low-income urban communities: Lessons from CCODE and the Federation in Malawi, 2016. Wonderful Hunga, IIED.

Like many other countries in the Global South, Malawi has failed to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets to improve access to sanitation. It has been estimated that only 25 per cent of the country’s population has gained access to improved sanitation since 1990 and access to it is a meagre 41 per cent, according to the latest Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) Report (2015).

By utilising social capital and promoting ecological sanitation, CCODE (an SDI affiliate), has enabled thousands of urban poor households, who could not afford better toilets, to live a dignified life. This study shows that the CCODE model could do this for most of Malawi’s urban poor.

Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Jan 19. Authors: Lawrence JJ, Yeboah-Antwi K, et al.

Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called “triggering.” This qualitative study explored community members’ and stakeholders’ sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia.

We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children’s opinions.

Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia.

Afghanistan’s CLTS Implementation Manual, 2016.

CLTS is a new approach in Afghanistan; and all stakeholders need to become familiar with how to implement it. CLTS has been successfully implemented in various countries throughout the world; however, there was an urgent need to adapt this approach to fit the societal and cultural aspects of Afghanistan. The Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD) in collaboration with UNICEF and WSG members developed this manual for CLTS implementation in Afghanistan. It is aimed at CLTS facilitators who implement this approach in the target communities.

Community led total sanitation for community based disaster risk reduction: A case for non-input humanitarian relief. Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8(2), 2016. Authors: Mlenga, D.H. & Baraki, Y.A.

This study investigated Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), subsidy free, community based disaster risk reduction approach, for open defecation reduction, in four constituencies in Swaziland. Data collected from households, through a knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey illustrated that with appropriate training, involvement of traditional and community leaders, CLTS minimises open defecation. There is need of participatory rural appraisal through regular community monitoring and feedback meetings, as the disgust generated especially for women and youth, through the meetings, as well as group dynamics, steer the sustained construction and use of sanitation facilities. Lack of coordination between Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) leads to slow improvement of sanitation coverage, wherein the same communities are promoting CLTS and others are promoting Subsidy Based Sanitation Intervention (SBSI) which involves subsidies. It is recommended that there be coordination between partners for harmonisation of messages and an integration of the CLTS and SBSI approaches.


Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, Hygiene Promotion, Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: CLTS, Community-Led Total Sanitation

USAID changed its water and sanitation priorities and it makes a lot of sense

27 January 2016 10:51 (America/New_York)

USAID changed its water and sanitation priorities and it makes a lot of sense | Source: by Bree Dyer, Global Citizen, Jan 26, 2016.

In 2014 the US Congress passed the Water for the World Act, a bill that is designed to address the needs of over one-third of the world’s population who lack access to basic sanitation or clean water. With this legislation the President and US Government are required to define USAID priority countries for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). These countries are where a major investment will be made to significantly increase access to safe drinking water and sanitation.

Image: Flickr, USAID

Yesterday, USAID released the first list of 13 priority countries that will receive aid during the 2016 fiscal year. Being selected as a priority country means that the countries will see an increase in water, sanitation and hygiene standards.

The list of priority countries for 2016 is:

  • Afghanistan
  • Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Ethiopia
  • Haiti
  • Indonesia
  • Jordan
  • Kenya
  • Lebanon
  • Liberia
  • Nigeria
  • South Sudan
  • Uganda
  • West Bank/Gaza

These countries were chosen based on their level of need, and the level of their commitment. Need was assessed through global data sets on the number and proportion of people with access to safe drinking water and sanitation, as well as the rates of under-five child mortality due to diarrheal disease.

Read the complete article.


Filed under: Progress on Sanitation, Uncategorized Tagged: USAID

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