Handwashing With a Water-Efficient Tap and Low-Cost Foaming Soap: The Povu Poa “Cool Foam” System in Kenya
Handwashing With a Water-Efficient Tap and Low-Cost Foaming Soap: The Povu Poa “Cool Foam” System in Kenya. Global Health: Science and Practice, June 2016.
Authors: Jaynie Whinnery, Gauthami Penakalapati, Rachel Steinacher, Noel Wilson, Clair Null, Amy J Pickering.
The new handwashing system, designed with end user input, features an economical foaming soap dispenser and a hygienic, water-efficient tap for use in household and institutional settings that lack reliable access to piped water.
Cost of the soap and water needed for use is less than US$0.10 per 100 handwash uses, compared with US$0.20–$0.44 for conventional handwashing stations used in Kenya.
KEY PRODUCT FEATURES OF THE POVU POA HANDWASHING SYSTEM
- Soap security: The soap foamer is attached to the system, preventing theft
- Affordability: Just 5 g of powdered or liquid soap mixed with 250 mL of water can provide 100 uses for US$0.10 (cost includes soap and water).
- Hygienic: The innovative swing-tap design is bidirectional and can be used with the back of the hand or wrist, limiting recontamination of hands after handwashing.
- Water-frugality: The water flow is sufficient for handwashing while providing a 30-77% reduction in water usage compared with conventional methods.
- Scalability: Components are specifically designed for low-cost mass production and deployment, estimated at US$12 per unit.
- Adaptable: The 2 handwashing station configurations can be adapted to meet different needs and preferences and can be used in households and institutional settings, such as schools and health centers.
Filed under: Africa, Hygiene Promotion Tagged: handwashing, Kenya
Market-based Approaches to Sanitation, 2016. PSI.
Market-based approaches can be applied to deliver a number of products (such as household, shared, or public toilets, using various designs and materials), services (like installation or waste removal and treatment) and forms of service delivery (free or pay-for-use).
This review focuses on models for household pit latrine construction and fecal sludge management.
Filed under: Progress on Sanitation Tagged: faecal sludge management, sanitation marketing
Fecal Sludge Management Tools – World Bank
In many cities, the emptying, conveyance, treatment and disposal of fecal sludge has largely been left to unregulated private, informal service providers.
To address this neglected but crucial part of urban sanitation, the World Bank has developed some tools to diagnose fecal sludge management (FSM) status and to guide decision-making.
These tools don’t provide pre-defined solutions, as the many variables and stakeholders involved demand interventions specific in each city, and should be seen within the context of integrated urban water management.
Link to the FSM Tools website.
Filed under: Economic Benefits, Progress on Sanitation Tagged: faecal sludge management, World Bank
A Third Of Hospitals In Developing Nations Don’t Have Clean Water: Study | Source: Huffington Post, June 23, 2016 |
Doctors often operate with dirty instruments because they have no other choice
At least a third of hospitals in developing nations do not have clean running water, a study has found, leading to unsanitary conditions and further spread of disease in drought-hit areas.
The study examined 430 hospitals in developing countries and found that one third of clinics did not have a reliable source of clean water to perform surgical operations.
Water availability ranged from 20 percent in Sierra Leone and Liberia to more than 90 percent in India, Malaysia and Guinea, according to the report, which used World Bank data and analysed previous studies between 2009 and 2015.
“Running water is something we take for granted and it doesn’t exist in a third of hospitals in these countries,” said Adam Kushner, lead author of the study, published in the Journal of Surgical Research.
“Instead of water just being there, some hospitals truck in water or collect it in rain barrels, with no guarantee of its cleanliness,” said Kushner, an adjunct professor at Johns Hopkins University who is also a surgeon.
Every year, half a million babies die before they are one-month-old due to a lack of clean water and safe sanitation in hospitals, according to a 2015 report by sanitation charity WaterAid and the World Health Organisation (WHO).
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: hospitals
Peeing in public still a concern, Modi seeks changes in Swachh Bharat campaign | Source: Hindustan Times, June 23 2016 |
Prime Minister Narendra Modi has spotted a gap in his Swachh Bharat campaign: the grotesque but common sight of men urinating in public places.
Modi has told the Union urban development (UD) ministry to ensure that the government’s outreach doesn’t just focus on open defecation in cities but target urination in public places as well. As the first step, the PM has asked the ministry to change the nomenclature of the campaign’s tagline. In line with the PM’s directive following a meeting on June 1 to review the progress of Swachh Bharat Mission, the ministry has set the ball rolling to call its campaign “Open Urination and Defecation Free Cities by 2019”.
The PM’s point, a senior government official who attended the meeting said, was that the earlier tagline – “Making Cities Open Defecation Free” – did not adequately reflect the challenge of public urination across the country.
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: India, urinating in public
Methane production for sanitation improvement in Haiti. Biomass and Bioenergy
Volume 91, August 2016, Pages 288–295.
Authors: Stephanie Lansing, Holly Bowen, et. al.
There is a great need for decentralized anaerobic digestion (AD) that utilizes wastewater for energy generation. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of Haitian latrine waste was determined and compared to other waste streams, such as grey water, septage, and dairy manure.
Average methane (CH4) production for the latrine waste (13.6 ml ml−1 substrate) was 23 times greater than septage (0.58 ml ml−1 substrate), and 151 times greater than grey water (0.09 ml ml−1 substrate), illustrating the larger potential when waste is source separated using the decentralized sanitation and reuse (DESAR) concept for more appropriate treatment of each waste stream.
Using the BMP results, methane production based on various AD configurations was calculated, and compared with the full-scale field AD design.
Methane potential from the BMP testing was calculated as 0.006–0.017 m3 person−1 day−1 using the lowest and highest latrine BMP results, which was similar to the values from the full-scale system (0.011 m3 person−1 day−1), illustrating the ability of BMPs to be used to predict biogas production from sanitation digesters in a smaller-scale setting.
Filed under: Latin America & Caribbean, Sanitary Facilities Tagged: Haiti, latrine wastes, methane production
Improving CLTS targeting: Evidence from Nigeria, 2016.
Co-authored by WaterAid and EDePo at IFS: Laura Abramovsky, Britta Augsburg, Erin Flynn, Francisco Oteiza.
CLTS works with an entire community to identify the negative effects of poor sanitation, especially the practice of open defecation, and empowers them to collectively find solutions. CLTS is understood to be more suitable for small, rural and homogeneous communities, however it is still considered an appropriate solution for more urbanised areas.
In this brief, we provide quantitative evidence to support this conjecture and bring forward a simple rule of thumb that allows more efficient programme targeting. We suggest that using this information can improve the targeting of CLTS in Nigeria, and possibly other countries, freeing up scarce resources to identify and test complementary sanitation approaches suitable for more urbanised communities.
Filed under: Africa, Dignity and Social Development, Sanitation and Health Tagged: Community-Led Total Sanitation, Nigeria, urban CLTS
Global Water Pathogen Project (GWPP)
To improve sustainable access to basic sanitation and safe drinking water, GWPP will update knowledge on water pathogens using advanced information technologies by publishing and disseminating a state-of-the-art reference resource on water-related disease risks and intervention measures (replacing Sanitation and Disease Health Aspects of Excreta and Wastewater Management by Feachem, Bradley, Garelick and Mara. 1983) and create an online open-access data base and knowledge platform.
GWPP will provide an updated review of the efficacy of sanitation technologies and serve as a compendium of waterborne pathogen information and quantitative data to support risk assessment to protect water safety. Work will also be conducted with the World Health Organization to support its Sanitation Guidelines.
Filed under: Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized
From waste-picker to waste professional: A Bengaluru organisation recycles livelihoods | Source: The News Minute, June 17 2016 |
Hasiru Dala also creates awareness about segregating dry waste and wet waste.
Thirty-eight-year-old Lakshmi has been working as a waste-picker in Bengaluru for five years. “We are called thieves when we are collecting waste. Some have even gone to the extent of calling the police,” said Lakshmi lamenting the state of waste-pickers in the city.
However, all that changed when Hasiru Dala, a social enterprise that organise waste-pickers came forward and provided Lakshmi with an ID card. “The green card from Hasiru Dala helps us avoid such problems,” she said.
Hasiru Dala, an organisation that turn waste-pickers to waste professionals aids the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) in managing Bengaluru’s massive waste production by providing waste management services for homes, apartments, commercial set-ups and events.. From a family wedding to a city-wide marathon, Hasiru Dala (Green Army in Kannada) provides waste management services for all kinds of events.
Along with recycling waste, Hasiru Dala has also managed to recycle the livelihoods of thousands of waste pickers in the city like that of Lakshmi. Shekhar Prabhakar, Managing Director of Hasiru Dala said, “Waste-picking is a job totally dependent on luck. It is not an easy job. Waste pickers bend down hundreds of times in covering a 10 km stretch. We are aiming to create dignified labour by providing waste-pickers with ID cards.” Hasiru Dala has helped around 7500 waste-pickers obtain an ID card.
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, South Asia Tagged: India, waste pickers
Managing menstruation in the workplace: an overlooked issue in low- and middle-income countries. Int J Equity Health. 2016; 15: 86.
Authors: Marni Sommer, Sahani Chandraratna, Sue Cavill, et. al.
The potential menstrual hygiene management barriers faced by adolescent girls and women in workplace environments in low- and middle-income countries has been under addressed in research, programming and policy. Despite global efforts to reduce poverty among women in such contexts, there has been insufficient attention to the water and sanitation related barriers, specifically in relation to managing monthly menstruation, that may hinder girls’ and women’s contributions to the workplace, and their health and wellbeing.
There is an urgent need to document the specific social and environmental barriers they may be facing in relation to menstrual management, to conduct a costing of the implications of inadequate supportive workplace environments for menstrual hygiene management, and to understand the implications for girls’ and women’s health and wellbeing. This will provide essential evidence for guiding national policy makers, the private sector, donors and activists focused on advancing girls’ and women’s rights.
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, Sanitation and Health Tagged: menstrual hygiene management
Human fecal and pathogen exposure pathways in rural Indian villages and the effect of increased latrine coverage
Human fecal and pathogen exposure pathways in rural Indian villages and the effect of increased latrine coverage. Water Research, Volume 100, 1 September 2016, Pages 232–244.
Authors: Mitsunori Odagiri, Alexander Schriewer, et al.
- Application of Bacteroidales MST to evaluate improved sanitation impacts
- Widespread human and animal fecal contamination detected in homes.
- Pathogens detected in drinking sources associated with subsequent child diarrhea.
- Public ponds used domestically were heavily contaminated with multiple pathogens.
- No decrease in human fecal or pathogen contamination from increased latrine coverage.
In conclusion, the study demonstrates that
- (1) improved sanitation alone may be insufficient and further interventions needed in the domestic domain to reduce widespread human and animal fecal contamination observed in homes,
- (2) pathogens detected in tubewells indicate these sources are microbiologically unsafe for drinking and were associated with child diarrhea,
- (3) domestic use of ponds heavily contaminated with multiple pathogens presents an under-recognized health risk, and
- (4) a 27 percentage point increase in improved sanitation access at village-level did not reduce detectable human fecal and pathogen contamination in this setting.
Filed under: Sanitation and Health Tagged: India, zoonotic diseases
What are the most significant trends in the WASH sector for 2016 – 2025?
Authors: Rognerud, I., Fonseca, C., Kerk, A. van der, Moriarty, P. IRC
2016 is a special year for the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and “Big Water” sectors: it marks the start of the 15-year period for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It is also an important year for IRC, as it is the final year of our current five-year business plan.
To develop a new strategy for IRC centred on the Sustainable Development Goals, we have analysed global and regional trends for 2016–2025. In this IRC Trends Analysis we seek to anticipate and explain 11 uncertain trends in the WASH sector, the wider development world and specifically, Dutch development assistance policy.
The report is written from the perspective of IRC’s vision of universal access to WASH services and its mission as an international think-and-do tank. It provides background for the development of IRC’s strategy. Although it is primarily an internal document, we are sharing it because many of the trends we identify are relevant to other sector stakeholders.
We have identified 11 uncertain trends that are relevant for IRC’s work:
- improving human development and economic growth
- rapid growth in migration and urbanisation
- worsening water scarcity
- complex governance trends
- a changing global aid landscape
- the rise of domestic resource mobilisation for development
- expansion of information and communications technology
- persistent gaps in wash services despite better access overall
- continued inadequacy and unsustainability of wash finance
- evolving approaches to wash service provision
- altered priorities in Dutch development cooperation policy
Filed under: Progress on Sanitation Tagged: trend analysis
Sanitation in Bangladesh: Revolution, Evolution, and New Challenges, 2016. CLTS Knowledge Hub Learning Paper.
Author: Dr Suzanne Hanchett.
Our 2015 discussions with people at all levels of Bangladesh society reveal both pride in sanitation achievements and concern about meeting future challenges. A combination of approaches – subsidies, non-subsidies, micro-credit, sanitation market improvements, programming at various scales, motivating of individuals and groups – has resulted in a majority of households’ using latrines rather than defecating openly.
Policy documents have created frameworks to guide activities in diverse areas. Issues such as quality, faecal sludge removal, and appropriate subsidies for very poor households remain, however. Hard-to-reach geographical areas lag behind the rest of the country. As Professor Mujibur Rahman’s 2009 overview pointed out, failing to address these challenges will threaten the sustainability of achievements.
Unique characteristics of the Bangladesh sanitation situation include the focus on its local government institution (the union), its long history of NGO-sponsored community mobilisation, and its high population density. Donor involvement has been a regular feature of the sanitation scene for more than three decades. It is a relatively small country, the size of only one of India’s states. All of these special conditions and characteristics have supported its achievements to date.
The transitions and challenges occurring in 2015 are daunting, to be sure; but the country has faced larger ones in the past. Moving away from open defecation was the biggest one. This achievement was primarily psychological, cultural, and political. Introducing and maintaining sewer systems, however, will involve substantial expense. Upgrading household latrines in rural areas also costs money. Donors’ interests will shift away from sanitation to urgent matters such as climate change; so new revenue sources will be needed.
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, South Asia Tagged: Bangladesh, Community-Led Total Sanitation, open defecation
Can mapping faecal flows cut the crap in developing cities? | Source: The Guardian, June 16, 2016 |
Human waste often ends up in drains, rivers, fields and on beaches, but fast growing cities can use data grabs to improve their sanitation conditions
Rapid urbanisation in many parts of the developing world is putting an increasing strain on the ability of cities to deliver critical services such as water and sanitation. More than half of the world’s population – 54% – live in urban areas and some 700 million of them do not use an improved sanitation facility, where human waste is separated from human contact.
But even where there are such facilities, this does not necessarily translate into environmentally safe practices. More than two billion people in urban areas use toilets connected to septic tanks or latrine pits that are not safely emptied or that discharge raw sewage into open drains or surface waters. With another 2.5 billion people expected to live in cities by 2050, authorities urgently need to keep up with the growing urban population, ensure equitable access to improved sanitation, and safeguard the appropriate and environmentally-safe management of human waste.
Believe it or not, mapping the journey of faecal waste is an important part of the solution. IRC’s new sanitation assessment tool offers a simple representation of the volumes of sludge safely (and unsafely) dealt with at each stage of the sanitation chain, allowing city planners to determine where the biggest losses are and where to focus their (often limited) budgets.
Although tools to assess faecal sludge management (FSM) do already exist, they are either not able to include qualitative information or the scorecards they provide do not give adequate explanations for a bad score, nor do they provide actual volumes, which makes it difficult to translate the results into action. IRC’s tool, however, analyses the availability and enforcement of policy and legislation, and the presence of and adherence to health and safety through specific scorecards.
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Technology, Uncategorized Tagged: sanitation assessment tool
Approaches to Capital Financing and Cost Recovery in Sewerage Schemes Implemented in India: Lessons Learned and Approaches for Future Schemes
Approaches to Capital Financing and Cost Recovery in Sewerage Schemes Implemented in India: Lessons Learned and Approaches for Future Schemes, 2016. Water and Sanitation Program.
This report aims to highlight some of the successful financial management practices adopted by Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in India when implementing sewerage schemes. The findings are presented in two parts – the first part of the report discusses the approach adopted for capital financing of sewerage schemes in the state of Tamil Nadu, and the second part presents the findings from a review of the operational expenditure and revenue generation of various ULBs across the country.
The aim of the report is to share successful capital financing and cost recovery practices adopted by ULBs in India and enable improvement in provisioning of sewerage systems (only where feasible and economically viable, typically only in larger towns with a population greater than 50,000) and ensure availability of sufficient funds for proper Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of the schemes implemented.
Filed under: Economic Benefits, Funding, South Asia Tagged: financing, India
Community Slum Sanitation in India: A Practitioner’s Guide, 2016. Water and Sanitation Program.
Based on the experience of slum sanitation initiatives implemented in a number of urban centers in India, over the last decades, this Guide draws out the critical drivers that appear to explain some facets of successful community slum sanitation initiatives.
Initiatives from the cities of Ahmedabad, Pune, Mumbai, Bhopal, Trichy, and Kalyani are used as the examples to learn from (based on convenience and easy availability of information).
A set of generic steps are identified and described thereafter for the preparatory, planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation stages of community sanitation initiatives.
Filed under: Progress on Sanitation, South Asia Tagged: India, slums, urban sanitation
Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia. Env Sci Tech, May 2016.
Authors: Jonny Crocker, Abiyot Geremew, Fisseha Atalie, Messele Yetie, and Jamie Bartram
Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided facilitation and an alternative approach in which teachers provided facilitation.
In 2012, Plan International Ethiopia trained teachers from 111 villages and health workers and leaders from 54 villages in CLTS facilitation. The trained facilitators then implemented CLTS in their respective villages
for a year. Latrine ownership, use, and quality were measured with household surveys.
Differences between interventions were explored using surveys and interviews. The decrease in open defecation associated with teacher-facilitated CLTS was 8.2 percentage points smaller than for conventional CLTS (p = 0.048). Teachers had competing responsibilities and initially lacked support from local leaders, which may have lessened their success.
Teachers may be more appropriate for a supporting rather than leading role in sanitation promotion because they did demonstrate ability and engagement. Open defecation decreased by 15.3 percentage points overall but did not change where baseline open defecation was below 30%.
Ownership of a latrine with stable flooring increased by 8.7 percentage points overall. Improved latrine ownership did not change during the intervention. CLTS is most appropriate where open defecation is high because there were no significant changes in sanitation practices or latrine upgrades where baseline open defecation was low
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development Tagged: Community-Led Total Sanitation, Ethiopia
Comparative assessment of sanitation and hygiene policies and institutional frameworks in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania
Comparative assessment of sanitation and hygiene policies and institutional frameworks in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, 2016.
Authors: Nelson Ekane, Nina Weitz, Björn Nykvist, Petter Nordqvist and Stacey Noel. Stockholm Environment Institute.
This paper presents a comparative assessment of the sanitation policy and institutional frameworks in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania based on a set of recommended criteria that comprehensive and supportive sanitation policies should meet. This assessment finds that the policies in Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania meet many of the recommended criteria, but are still lacking key aspects to adequately cater for sustainability of services and functionality of facilities.
Further, policies should reflect the needs and preferences of people. This is usually not the case because policies are very ambitious and hard to fully translate to action. Despite the existence of policies, the implementation process is flawed in many ways, and two key gaps are the lack or inadequate financing for sanitation, and serious lack of technical capacity, especially at the district level.
Furthermore, the assessment shows that the policy and institutional framework for sanitation and hygiene differs from country to country. Rwanda and Uganda have separate sanitation and hygiene policies while Tanzania is still in the process of developing a separate sanitation policy. The paper also shows that even though there are still serious shortfalls shortfalls that hindered the achievement of the sanitation MDG in Uganda and Tanzania in particular, major reforms in the sector have undoubtedly contributed to improved sector performance in all the three countries.
Regionally, access to improved sanitation in SSA is on a gradual increase while the practice of open defecation is decreasing. On a country level, however, there are significant variations in performance between countries, with countries like Rwanda making remarkable progress in sanitation and hygiene coverage.
Filed under: Africa, Progress on Sanitation Tagged: Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda
An Innovative Solution To Menstrual Hygiene In Developing Countries | Source: Co.Design, June 2016 |
Meet Flo, an affordable, modular “period kit” that allows girls in impoverished countries to wash, dry, and store their reusable sanitary pads.
In underdeveloped countries where periods are stigmatized, adolescent girls have a lot more to deal with each month than physical discomfort and hormones. Pads and tampons aren’t always available in rural areas, and when they are they’re expensive. Reusable pads help solve some of the problem, but keeping them clean is tough when girls have to hide their period from others.
It’s that last problem that a group of students from the Art Center College of Design in California and Yale Business School set out to solve with Flo, a kit for washing, drying, and storing sanitary pads. It includes a detachable device using for spinning the pad dry and hanging it up in privacy, as well as a pouch for transporting.
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: menstrual hygiene management
SuSanA monthly webinar 3: Of Faeces and Icebergs – Sanitation, Organizational Neurosis and Change, Wednesday June 22th 2016, 9:00 EDT (New York time)
Please join us for a webinar titled ‘Of Faeces and Icebergs – Sanitation, Organizational Neurosis and Change’ scheduled for Wednesday June 22th 2016 at 9:00 EDT (New York time)/15.00 CET. This is the third webinar in a monthly recurring series on SuSanA.
The presentation will aim to sensitize water and sanitation sector professionals (managers, consultants and scientists alike) for the need to deal in a meaningful way with what is perceived as “resistance to change” in order to sustainably strengthen actors’ capacity to adapt to challenges emerging from their environment. Linking the dimensions of the individual, the organization and society at large, it puts for-ward an approach of “organizational therapy” geared towards raising awareness and mobilizing organizations’ own potentials for overcoming their limitations. Organized around the originally Freudian concept of “introjection” as its central topos, the presentation offers behavioural sciences, anthropological and psychotherapeutic evidence to give the approach a firm methodological grounding.
Presenter: Thomas Rieger – Como Consult
Thomas Rieger is an Organization Development consultant affiliated to Como Consult in Hamburg, Germany. He specializes in accompanying complex change processes in public administration, private business and NGOs.
The webinar will last approximately 45 minutes including a presentation followed by an open discussion with webinar participants.
We will also open the session 30 minutes beforehand for a low-key ‘mingle’ among participants, where you can use your computer video or microphone.
The webinar is being hosted by Stockholm Environment Institute and the SuSanA secretariat as part of a grant to SEI funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
9:00 New York/Washington DC
To register please follow this link: check back, coming soon
Link for the webinar: seint.adobeconnect.com/seiwebinar/
Log-on password: webinar2016
Filed under: Uncategorized