The decision to divert funding from water to sanitation turned sour when drought struck India.
A budget tracking study in India revealed that the shift of policy focus from water to sanitation has resulted in a cut in government spending on rural water supply. This was a cause of concern because at the time of the study (August-December 2015) six of the seven states reviewed were reeling under severe drought.
A Parliamentary Standing Committee report released on 6 May 2016 stated that the government would be unable to achieve its 2017 target of providing 50% rural households with piped water. The media accused the government of starving the National Rural Drinking Water Programme of funds, while at the same time increasing funding for Prime Minister Modi’s flagship sanitation programme “Swachh Bharat”. The government has even introduced an additional 0.5% “Swachh Bharat” service tax.
The Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability (CBGA) is presenting their budget tracking study on 26 July 2016 in Delhi as part of the WASH Dialogues series of events. WASH Dialogues are an initiative of IRC and TARU Leading Edge. CBGA’s presentation will focus on the institutional and procedural bottlenecks that are constraining public expenditure in the water and sanitation sector.
For more information on the event “Tracking policy and budgetary commitments for drinking water and sanitation in the new fiscal architecture in India” go the IRC Events page.
For more on budget tracking see:
This news item was originally published on the IRC website.
Filed under: Campaigns and Events, Progress on Sanitation, South Asia, Uncategorized Tagged: budget tracking, Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability, finance, India, IRC, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, TARU Leading Edge
IRC helps AMCOW develop a new process to monitor the N’gor declaration
At the 2016 Africa Water Week, civil society called on the African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW) to honour the region’s commitments on water, sanitation and hygiene, including those agreed in the 2015 N’gor declaration. The four partner organisations in Watershed – empowering citizens, Akvo, IRC, Simavi and Wetlands International, were among those that endorsed the collective statement submitted to AMCOW by the African Network for Water (ANEW).
Progress especially on sanitation has so far been poor; only 4% between from 2000 to 2015, according to Al-hassan Adam from End Water Poverty. A recent IRC/WSUP finance brief stated that only eight African countries provide data on sanitation expenditure. All of them are falling behind on their N’gor declaration commitment to spend 0.5% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on sanitation. Exerting pressure to speed up progress on sanitation is an obvious task for those civil society organisations (CSOs) that Watershed aims to support.
Next to lobbying AMCOW to honour its sanitation commitments, IRC is also advising the ministerial council on the development of a new process to monitor the N’gor declaration. The aim of the new monitoring process is to create reflective dialogue processes at country and subregional levels and strengthen mechanisms for accountability to citizens and political leaders informed by evidence.
So far a Regional Action Plan has been developed, and indicators and scoring criteria have been reviewed through a series of sub-regional consultations led by AMCOW in Nairobi, Dakar and Johannesburg in May and June 2016. See below an example of an indicator with scoring criteria.
For more information, read the background paper prepared by Alana Potter.
This news item was originally published on the IRC website.
Filed under: Africa, Policy, Progress on Sanitation Tagged: AMCOW, IRC, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, N'gor declaration, sanitation monitoring
Enabling factors for the existence of waste pickers: A systematic review. Social work (Stellenbosch. Online) vol.52 n.1 Stellenbosch 2016. Authors: Rinie Schenck; Derick Blaauw; Kotie Viljoen.
The paper reports on a systematic review research process to determine the enabling factors for waste pickers to operate in the informal economy in South Africa. Twenty-eight South African journal articles, theses and position and policy papers were sourced and appraised.
The results indicate that recognition of the waste pickers in the waste system is the most enabling factor for them to operate. The concept of recognition is analysed, described and explained as assisting waste pickers to become more visible, having a voice and to be validated.
Filed under: Africa, Dignity and Social Development Tagged: South Africa, waste pickers
Improving the quality of public toilet services in Kumasi, 2016. Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor.
Public toilets are the leading form of sanitation in urban Ghana: in Kumasi, 700,000 people use one each day. This Note presents the activities of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA) to raise the standard of these services.
To assist KMA in promoting greater private sector involvement, PPIAF commissioned the consultancy Ernst & Young (EY) to conduct a feasability study. The study recommended that toilets participating in the scheme be operated under a Build, Own, Operate, Transfer (BOOT) model, presented in Figure 2. Key features of the model are: 1) a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Project Company would design, build, finance, operate and maintain the toilets for a 20-year concession period, after which the assets would be transferred back to KMA; 2) the Company would directly collect user fees and use it to cover their costs; 3) the Company would pay a monthly franchise fee to KMA, calculated as a percentage of revenue; 4) revenues 10% higher than assumptions made in the financial model would be paid to KMA; and 5) donor funding and cover to insure KMA’s termination guarantee may be sought.
There is a clear need for improved standards of public toilets in Kumasi. Progress has already been made, with training and improved monitoring impacting positively on the level of service. While rehabilitation and construction under the BOOT scheme will take time to complete, the resulting improvements should reduce waiting times for consumers, improve overall service quality and enhance financial viability.
KMA recognises that PLBs are not the long-term solution — a five-year compound sanitation strategy is being implemented in parallel, to achieve universal access to in-house sanitation in the long term — but the steps now being taken by KMA will ensure that public toilets provide the best possible service in the interim.
Filed under: Africa, Progress on Sanitation Tagged: Ghana, urban sanitation
The 10 Most Innovative Health Technologies Saving Millions In The Developing World | Source: Medical Futurist, July 19, 2016 |
There are striking differences in the general social, economic or political background of the developed and developing country-groups, and developing countries are in dire need for creative and innovative medical solutions. Here are the 10 most innovative health technologies which could save millions of lives in these corners of the Earth.
Featured in this article are innovations on the manufacture of sanitary pads and water purification.
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, Sanitation and Health Tagged: menstrual hygiene management, sanitary pads, water purification
Penn project aims to stop open defecation by changing social norms | Source: Penn Current, July 21 2016 |
Cristina Bicchieri’s work is not for the faint of heart.
The Penn professor of philosophy, legal studies, and psychology looks at how social norms affect community behaviors. Recently, she has been studying open defecation and trying to shift what is acceptable in developing countries.
This fall, through a new three-year grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, her work will take her to India, a country where 48 percent of the population engages in this practice, according to UNICEF.
Open defecation is a well-established traditional practice in India, deeply ingrained from early childhood, UNICEF reports. This is partly because it is socially taboo to discuss sanitation, so few people do, and also because poverty means other life necessities get prioritized over toilets.
“It’s very unsanitary; it spreads diseases,” says Bicchieri, the S. J. Patterson Harvie Professor of Social Thought and Comparative Ethics in the School of Arts & Sciences.
Despite attempts by the Indian government to curb the problem with incentives to build latrines, the practice continues, polluting water and food. To better understand why, Bicchieri will conduct research in villages and cities in the states of Tamil Nadu and Bihar.
One hypothesis suggests that society considers toileting in the open acceptable. “The [places] that started building latrines didn’t have a sense that it is a public good,” she says. “It has to be supported by the community, and successful interventions elsewhere have seen norms around latrine usage and maintenance emerge.”
Bicchieri’s theory extends beyond societal norms, to social networks, so she called on Hans-Peter Kohler, the Frederick J. Warren Professor of Demography in the Department of Sociology. For more than two decades, Kohler has studied how Malawians rely on social networks, and how such networks change behavior, particularly regarding HIV/AIDS.
“A key question is, ‘Where do these behavioral norms come from and how are they enforced?’” Kohler says. “Social networks likely play an [important] role.”
Kohler believes the methodology used in Malawi will translate well to Bicchieri’s project. The pair, along with several postdocs, will begin by documenting how individuals in India interact and how these interactions shape and enforce norms around open defecation. Eventually this research will inform an intervention to change the prevailing, unhygienic habits, one built on measurement tools and previous research from Bicchieri and Kohler.
Bicchieri, at least, has been down this road before, in Pakistan. Discussing the health consequences of open defecation tends not to move the needle, she says. Rather, getting through requires a more visual cue, like one used by UNICEF’s “Community Approaches to Total Sanitation” program.
“They take the human waste from around the village, they bring it into the village square, and then they put food nearby. Not right next to it but nearby. People sit and watch what’s happening,” Bicchieri explains. “They see the flies going back and forth from waste to food. Then you ask the people if they want to eat it. They are disgusted.”
Once people understand how their actions negatively impact the entire community, “that strong emotion of disgust is extremely powerful in getting them to change behaviors,” she says.
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, Hygiene Promotion Tagged: open defecation
A tale of clean cities: Insights for planning urban sanitation from Kumasi, Ghana, 2016. WaterAid.
Key learning points
- Sanitation progress in Kumasi has been a long-term effort championed by a technically strong municipal Waste Management Department, supported by a wide range of development partners.
- Despite some political consensus around the importance of sanitation, and partly due to inadequacy of monitoring systems, financial support has remained low, limiting progress.
- Open defecation has been almost eliminated through the expansion of public toilets, prioritised at the expense of private toilets because of housing constraints.
- Enabling policies catalysed private sector investment, improving management of public toilets and service levels across the sanitation service chain.
- Disparities remain in terms of reach and quality of these services, which are poor in low-income areas.
- Sanitation planning exercises helped forge a shared vision on how to advance towards sustainable service delivery.
- The quality of these ‘learning by doing’ planning processes was more influential than were the resulting plans.
Filed under: Africa, Progress on Sanitation Tagged: Ghana, urban sanitation
The sanitation campaign in India is helping Rajasthan become a top performing state in ending open defecation. The Chief Minister of Rajasthan declared sanitation as one of the state’s top development priorities, with a target of eliminating open defecation by 2018.
To bring this vision to fruition, an innovative Community Led Total Sanitation Campaign (CLTS) was launched in many districts with the leadership of district collectors.
The approach focuses on crucial issues: Behavior Change and Demand Creation. From Health Centers, to Schools, to door-to-door visits, the message of sanitation and hygiene was effectively communicated.
Health is blooming, one home at a time. One village at a time. And Rajasthan is on course to becoming open defecation free.
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, Multimedia, Progress on Sanitation, South Asia Tagged: Community-Led Total Sanitation, India
Policy Guidance Manual on Wastewater Management with a Special Emphasis on Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems.
Policy Guidance Manual on Wastewater Management with a Special Emphasis on Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems, 2015. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) and Asian Institute of Technology (AIT),
The Policy Guidance Manual on Wastewater Management with a special emphasis on
Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS) highlights adequate policy and
sustainable practices from the South-East Asia (SEA) region and worldwide. The primary
objectives of the Policy Guidance Manual on DEWATS for SEA are three-fold:
(a) to guide national and local policy-makers and experts of SEA in enabling pro-poor policies, strategies, legal, institutional, social, environmental and financial frameworks
for sustainable sanitation services;
(b) to advocate DEWATS to accelerate sustainable sanitation services in peri-urban areas and secondary towns along the Mekong corridor; and
(c) to suggest solutions and options for reforms aimed at sustainable delivery of sanitation
services towards the achievement of the country’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for sanitation, and to contribute to the post-2015 development agenda and SDG6 on Water and Sanitation.
Filed under: Wastewater Management
Refreshing Africa’s future: prospects for achieving universal WASH access by 2030, 2016. Authors: A. Markle; Z. Donnenfeld. Institute for Security Studies.
Access to water, sanitation and hygiene is indispensable to development, but what will it take for Africa to achieve universal access in 15 years? This paper uses the International Futures forecasting system to explore Sustainable Development Goal 6, which promises water, sanitation and hygiene to all by 2030.
It finds that Africa is not on track to meet this goal. In response, it uses two alternative scenarios to assess the costs and benefits associated with accelerating access. The first models an aggressive push toward universal access and the second a more moderate approach that advances access to water, sanitation and hygiene based on countries’ 2015 baselines.
Filed under: Africa, Progress on Sanitation
High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya. PLoS One, July 2016. Authors: Peng Jia , John D. Anderson, Michael Leitner, Richard Rheingans
Background – Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals.
Methods – The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008–2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children’s Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation.
Results – The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing.
Conclusions – There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of greater needs when resources are limited.
Filed under: Africa, Progress on Sanitation, Sanitary Facilities Tagged: Kenya, sanitation access, wealth
Sustainable Sanitation for All: Experiences, challenges, and innovations, June 2016. Practical Action.
Great strides have been made in improving sanitation in many developing countries. Yet, 2.4 billion people worldwide still lack access to adequate sanitation facilities and the poorest and most vulnerable members of society are often not reached and their specific needs are not met.
Moreover, sustainability is currently one of the key challenges in CLTS and wider WASH practice, subsuming issues such as behaviour change, equity and inclusion, physical sustainability and sanitation marketing, monitoring and verification, engagement of governments, NGOs and donors, particularly after open defecation free (ODF) status is reached, and more.
Achievement of ODF status is now recognised as only the first stage in a long process of change and sanitation improvement, with new challenges emerging every step of the way, such as how to stimulate progress up the sanitation ladder, how to ensure the poorest and marginalised are reached, or how to maintain and embed behaviour change.
There have been several useful studies on sustainability that have highlighted some of these different aspects as well as the complexities involved. This book develops these key themes by exploring current experience, practices, challenges, innovations and insights, as well as identifying a future research agenda and gaps in current knowledge.
Describing the landscape of sustainability of CLTS and sanitation with reference to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and through examples from Africa and Asia, the book captures a range of experiences and innovations from a broad range of institutions and actors within the WASH sector, and attempts to make recommendations and practical suggestions for policy and practice for practitioners, funders, policy-makers and governments.
Filed under: Progress on Sanitation, Sanitary Facilities, Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: Community-Led Total Sanitation, Sustainability, sustainable sanitation
Learning from Sustained Success: How Community-Driven Initiatives to Improve Urban Sanitation Can Meet the Challenges
Learning from Sustained Success: How Community-Driven Initiatives to Improve Urban Sanitation Can Meet the Challenges. World Development, July 2016.
Authors: Gordon McGranahan, Diana Mitlin.
Past research by one of the authors of this paper has identified four key institutional challenges that community-driven initiatives to improve sanitation in deprived urban settlements face: the collective action challenge of improving community sanitation; the coproduction challenge of working with formal service providers to dispose of the sanitary waste safely; the affordability challenge of reconciling the affordable with what is acceptable to both users and local authorities; and the tenure challenge of preventing housing insecurity from undermining residents’ willingness to commit to sanitary improvement.
In this article we examine how two well-documented, relatively successful and longstanding initiatives, the Orangi Pilot Project and an Alliance of Indian partners, met these challenges. They were met through social innovation, but also through the choice and development of sanitation technologies (simplified sewers for OPP and community toilet blocks for the Indian Alliance) that provided traction for the social innovations. We also explore more recent efforts by civil society partnerships in four African cities, demonstrating some of the difficulties they have faced in trying to overcome these challenges. No equivalent models have emerged, though there has been considerable progress against particular challenges in particular places.
These findings confirm the importance of the challenges, and indicate that these are not just challenges for social organization, but also for technology design and choice. For example, the problem with household pit latrines is not that they cannot physically be improved to sufficiently, but that they are not well-suited to the social, economic and political challenges of sanitary improvement at scale. The findings also indicate that a low economic status and a tendency to treat sanitation as a private good not suitable for public support also makes the sanitation challenges difficult to overcome.
Filed under: Progress on Sanitation, Research Tagged: urban sanitation
USAID Joins 100,000 Women in India to Bring Dignity, Safety, and Health to a City of Two Million | Source: Christian Holmes/USAID, Global Waters, June 27, 2016 |
At USAID we recognize the threat poor sanitation combined with rapid urbanization presents to human health, dignity, and prosperity. This is why we have made urban sanitation a global priority for the Agency. During a recent visit to India, I was able to see some of the work being done to bring sanitation services to urban areas, and had the good fortune to meet some inspiring women who are advancing these efforts in their communities.
Currently, more than 300 million people live in India’s urban areas, a number that is quickly increasing. The growing population of city dwellers is straining the country’s ability to provide safe drinking water and sanitation services.
To address this, the Government of India has committed to providing sanitation and household toilet facilities for all 4,041 cities in India through Swachh Bharat (Clean India) Campaign.
India’s commitment to this effort is vital. Close to 600 million people in the country practice open defecation, which contaminates water and can spread diseases. Lack of access to sanitation can keep people from productive activities such as work and school, either due to illness or time spent searching for private, safe locations to defecate. In India, it is estimated this lack of access results in an annual economic loss of approximately $54 billion or 6.4 percent of the nation’s gross domestic product.
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, South Asia Tagged: Global Waters, India, USAID
UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) 2016/2017 Cycle
The UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) is entering a new strategy period after successfully completing three full cycles and a pilot. With the new strategy, some things have stayed the same, but some things have changed as GLAAS evolves looking towards the future and the Sustainable Development Goals.
For this strategy period, GLAAS will alternate between focusing on financing and the broad GLAAS covering the enabling environment in more depth. This means that the country survey (short form) for the 2016/2017 cycle will have a complete section on financing and select questions on other aspects of the enabling environment. A long version covering all aspects of the enabling environment is also available.
The 2017 report, to be released prior to the Sanitation and Water for All High Level Meeting in April 2017, will feature finance while still covering elements of all traditional GLAAS topics (governance, monitoring, human resources).
Filed under: Progress on Sanitation Tagged: GLAAS 2016/2017
3 steps to improve rural sanitation in India – a pathway to scale and sustainability | Source: World Bank Water Blog, July 7 2016 |
Almost 600 million Indians living in rural areas defecate in the open. To meet the ambitious targets of the Indian government’s Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM (G)) – the rural clean India mission – plans to eliminate open defecation by 2019.
SBM (G) is time-bound with a stronger results orientation, targeting the monitoring of both outputs (access to sanitation) and outcomes (usage). There is also a stronger focus on behavior change interventions and states have been accorded greater flexibility to adopt their own delivery mechanisms.
The World Bank has provided India with a US$1.5 billion loan and embarked on a technical assistance program to support the strengthening of SBM-G program delivery institutions at the national level, and in select states in planning, implementing and monitoring of the program.
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Progress on Sanitation, South Asia Tagged: India, rural sanitation
Sundara Fund: Attacking Hygiene Inequality Through Innovative Hand-Washing | Source: Browngirl Magazine, July 8 2016 |The impetus for launching Sundara was born back in 2013 when founder Erin Zaikis was working with organizations and schools fighting child trafficking in rural northern Thailand, on the border of Myanmar. During one school visit, she watched as teenage children entered and left the restroom without washing their hands.
Making the several-hour trek to the closest store that sold soap, she bought roughly 150 bars costing $30. “Cigarettes were much more expensive, but cigarettes were bought by almost everyone in the community…The problem did not lie in the cost of soap, but rather the education,” Zaikis says.
While conducting an impromptu hand-washing workshop at a school one day, she “watched in horror” as one child tried to bite the soap, some scratching it with their nails, and yet others smacking their faces with it—unsure of what to do.
Zaikis says, “Here I was, meeting children who had lived their whole lives without something I took for granted every single day of mine. Reeling from the inequality of this situation and feeling like no one else was putting attention on it, I decided I had to help.”
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Hygiene Promotion Tagged: handwashing, soap, Sundara Fund
Fecal sludge management is the elephant in the room, but we have developed tools to help | Source: World Bank Water Blog, July 6, 2016 |
Recently developed Fecal Sludge Management tools to help address this important, but often-ignored, urban sanitation issue.
In the rapidly expanding cities of the developing world, sanitation is of ever growing importance – more people mean more exposure to fecal pollution, and therefore a greater risk to public health. The widely accepted solution, taught to sanitary engineers worldwide, is to flush human waste into sewers which take it to large, centralized treatment facilities.
This requires expensive infrastructure, a plentiful water supply, skilled operators and a substantial and reliable stream of operating funds. This means that in most low- and middle-income country cities, the sewerage service is only available to a small and decreasing proportion of the population, as investments cannot keep up with the explosive urban growth.
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Economic Benefits Tagged: faecal sludge management
India – 328 children below 5 die of diarrhoea daily | Source: Times of India, July 11 2016 |
NEW DELHI: Around 328 children under 5 years of age die of diarrhoea every day, latest assessment by the health ministry shows. This has prompted the ministry to intensify its diarrhoea control programme to reach out to over 10 crore children with ORS solution this year from 6.3 crore last year.
Estimates show that over 1.2 lakh children less than five years of age succumb to diarrhoea every year. The primary reasons for diarrhoeal attacks among children are contaminated water and food, malnutrition, inadequate sanitation and lack of immunization. Diarrhoeal deaths are usually clustered in summer and monsoon months
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Sanitation and Health, South Asia Tagged: India
Nudging and Habit Change for Open Defecation: New Tactics from Behavioral Science, March 2016.
Authors: David Neal, Ph.D. (Catalyst), Jelena Vujcic, M.P.H. (Catalyst), Rachel Burns Ph.D. (Catalyst), Wendy Wood, Ph.D. (University of Southern California) and Jacqueline Devine, MBA (World Bank, Water and Sanitation Program)
In this working paper, we draw on basic scientifc fndings from psychology, cognitive science, and behavioral economics to propose a framework of 8 System 1 Principles to support the initiation and maintenance of OD behavior change.
In doing so, we build from the general framework advanced in the World Bank Group’s (2015) World Development Report: Mind, Society, and Behavior, which emphasized three core insights from behavioral science, namely that people think (a) automatically, (b) socially and (c) using mental models that channel their decision-making.
Filed under: Hygiene Promotion, Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: behaviour change, habit change, nudging, open defecation