Sanitation Updates

Subscribe to Sanitation Updates feed
News, Opinions and Resources for Sanitation for All
Updated: 1 min 47 sec ago

USAID’s Global Waters, August 2016

30 August 2016 11:23 (America/New_York)

The August 2016 issue of USAID’s Global Waters is now online and includes the articles listed below. 

Pipeline to Progress  – The recent opening of a major new USAID-funded water pipeline is pumping new life into area homes and businesses — carrying with it the promise of a more dependable water supply for 260,000 residents of the southern West Bank

West Africa Water Supply, Sanitation & Hygiene Program – Our Real Impact series takes an in-depth look at USAID’s WA-WASH program and its work in the West African countries of Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Niger.

Improving Water Services for a More Water Secure Middle East – Global Water Coordinator Christian Holmes reports on his Middle East visit and the work being done to meet regional water needs to both maintain public health and produce food.

Nader Al-Khateeb on West Bank Water Security – Al-Khateeb tells Global Waters Radio about the recent opening of the Deir Sha’ar pipeline in the southern West Bank and how it is improving water security for 260,000 residents.

Emily Rand on Improved Child Feces Management – Rand discusses key findings from recent research  produced by the World Bank and UNICEF in the growing public health field of child feces management.

Annabell Waititu on Gender and Water Management in Kenya – Waititu talks to Global Waters Radio about why it is important for women to become involved in water management decisions beyond the household.


Filed under: Publications Tagged: Global Waters, USAID

Achieving universal access to water and sanitation by 2030 – how can blended finance help?

29 August 2016 14:32 (America/New_York)

Achieving universal access to water and sanitation by 2030 – how can blended finance help? | Source: World Bank Water Blog, August 29, 2016 |

An excerpt: What is “blended finance”?

OECD refers to blended finance as ‘the strategic use of development finance and philanthropic funds to mobilize private capital flows to emerging and frontier markets’.  Blended finance in the water sector has the potential of mobilizing private sector financing for credit-worthy or close to credit-worthy investments. This would allow reallocating public funds to other areas where public subsidies are likely to be needed.

Commercial finance usually brings requirements for greater investment discipline and transparency, which in turn could support improved efficiency in the sector, an objective for most water sector reform efforts around the world. 

Domestic commercial finance in particular can be mobilized in local currency, which reduces the foreign exchange risk and can bring down transaction costs, particularly for smaller scale investments to improve efficiency that can generate rapid returns (such as replacing meters or fixing leaks).

Blended finance has traditionally been used as a tool to stimulate interest from the commercial financial sector, with the use of concessional finance then tapering off over time to avoid distorting markets. Given the embedded distortions in the WSS sector in developing countries, where financing is predominantly based on subsidized public funds, it will be necessary to move towards mobilizing more commercial funds over time. Blended finance can be a stepping-stone in that transition.

Read the complete article.


Filed under: Economic Benefits Tagged: blended finance

DefeatDD: Superheroes vs. Villains

29 August 2016 14:22 (America/New_York)
Published on Aug 29, 2016

Superheroes and villains face off in the battle to DefeatDD! With their powers combined, Nutrition, Vaccines, WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene), and ORS + Zinc help children, families, and communities conquer the biggest bugs terrorizing towns and sickening kids with diarrhea—Rotavirus, ETEC, Shigella, and Cryptosporidium.

Learn more at www.DefeatDD.org.

 


Filed under: Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: diarrheal diseases

Poor sanitation cost global economy US$ 223 billion in 2015

25 August 2016 5:25 (America/New_York)

Lack of access to sanitation cost the global economy US$222.9 billion in 2015, up from US$182.5 billion in 2010, a rise of 22% in just five years, according to a new report released on 25 August 2016 by LIXIL Group Corporation (“LIXIL Group”), a global leader in housing and building materials, products and services.

The true cost of poor sanitation, published in collaboration with WaterAid and Oxford Economics, which conducted economic modeling to develop up-to-date estimations of the global cost of poor sanitation, brings to light the high economic burden in low-income and lower-middle income countries.

More than half (55%) of all costs of poor sanitation are a consequence of premature deaths, rising to 75% in Africa. A further quarter are due to treating related diseases, and other costs are related to lower productivity as a result of illnesses and time lost due to lack of access to a private toilet.

Infographic from “The True Cost of Poor Sanitation”

Regionally, in terms of total US dollar value, the economic burden of poor sanitation is heaviest in Asia Pacific, which is accountable for a cost of US$ 172.3 billion, over three quarters of the total amount. Latin America and the Caribbean, and Africa account for approximately 10% of the global cost each. On a national level, in terms of total cost, India suffers by far the most, with US$106.7 billion wiped off GDP in 2015, almost half of the total global losses, and 5.2% of the nation’s GDP.

The research underlines the terrible toll poor sanitation is taking in Africa, where the costs stood at US$19.3 billion in 2015, an increase of 24.5% from US$15.5 billion in 2010. These costs were equivalent to 0.9% of GDP, higher than the global (ex-India) average. In terms of cost as a share of GDP, the top 10 most impacted countries were concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

The report identifies three priority areas that will be key in ensuring sustainable sanitation solutions for all:

  • Political will and action: The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for sanitation was the most off track. Governments should commit to a national strategy on sanitation to meet the target set out in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG6).
  • Innovative solutions: Sanitation systems in the developed world require vast amounts of land, energy, and water. They are expensive to build, maintain and operate. Innovation is key to solving the sanitation crisis.
  • Cross-sector collaboration: Providing sanitation solutions for low income consumers is a complex challenge. It is important to build partnerships across public and private sectors and civil society. Knowledge sharing, new technologies and innovation in delivery models are needed to address the sanitation challenge.

Read the full press release.

Lixil, WaterAid Japan & Oxford Economics, 2016. The true cost of poor sanitation. Tokyo, Japan: Lixil.  13 p. fig., photogr. Download the full report


Filed under: Africa, East Asia & Pacific, Economic Benefits, Europe & Central Asia, Latin America & Caribbean, Middle East & North Africa, Publications, Research, South Asia, Uncategorized Tagged: access to sanitation, health impacts, Lixil, mortality, Oxford Economics, productivity, sanitation costs, WaterAid Japan

Recent sanitation research updates

23 August 2016 13:21 (America/New_York)

Building Capacity for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Programming: Training Evaluation Theory Applied to CLTS Management Training in Kenya. Social Science and Medicine, August 2016. There are many training evaluation methods and tools available. However, such WASH training evaluations have been infrequent and lacked rigor. The authors have developed a conceptual framework for evaluating training in WASH by reviewing and adapting concepts from the literature.

The Addis Agreement: Using CLTS in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas. CLTS Knowledge Hub, August 2016. This paper is the outcome of a 2-day conference in Ethiopia June 13-15, 2016 where participants shared their varied experiences and discussed what value a CLTS approach can bring to the urban context.

Using a CLTS Approach in Peri-Urban and Urban Environments: Potential at Scale. CLTS Knowledge Hub, August, 2016. This Learning Brief summarizes the potential and limitations of using a CLTS approach in peri-urban and urban environments.

Formative Research to Develop Appropriate Participatory Approaches Towards Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Rural Areas. India WASH Forum, June 2016. This study was conducted to understand perceptions, barriers, and motivators for improved sanitation behavior in rural India.

Effect of Eliminating Open Defecation on Diarrhoeal Morbidity: An Ecological Study of Nyando and Nambale Sub-Counties, Kenya. BMC Public Health, August 2016. The study found that the two sub-counties with open defecation free status had a lower prevalence of diarrhea compared to sub-counties which were yet to attain open defecation free status.

The Impact of a Rural Sanitation Programme on Safe Disposal of Child Faeces: A Cluster Randomised Trial in Odisha, India. Transactions of the Royal Society Tropical Medicine Hygiene, July 2016. The researchers concluded that to achieve open defecation free communities, sanitation interventions will need to develop behavior change approaches that explicitly target safe disposal behaviors.


Filed under: Sanitation and Health Tagged: Community-Led Total Sanitation

USAID – Eco-fuel Africa: charcoal from agricultural waste

23 August 2016 12:05 (America/New_York)
Published on Apr 13, 2016

Eco-fuel Africa is a social enterprise determined to eradicate over dependence on wood-fuel in Sub-Saharan Africa by making organic charcoal from agricultural waste. Eco-fuel Africa invented a simple, manual machine that converts agricultural waste into fuel briquettes that burn longer, cleaner and are 20 percent cheaper than wood fuel.


Filed under: Africa, Economic Benefits Tagged: agricultural wastes, charcoal, Eco-fuel Africa, USAID

USAID APHIAplus -Community-led sanitation in Nakuru County, Kenya

23 August 2016 11:54 (America/New_York)

Published on Aug 3, 2016

APHIAplus Nuru ya Bonde project works with technical teams in five Kenyan counties to improve water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Over the past five years, the project has helped to significantly increase access to functional latrines in the five counties it covers.

In Nakuru County, Efforts are focused on working with public health officials and communities to stamp out open defecation, practiced by only 3% of the community. This video presents some of the project’s work in the county.

 


Filed under: Uncategorized Tagged: APHIAplus, Community-Led Total Sanitation, Kenya, USAID

World Bank – Scaling Up Rural Sanitation in Lao PDR: Latrines Makes Good Business

22 August 2016 13:45 (America/New_York)
Published on Aug 22, 2016

A scaling up rural sanitation program in Champasak and Sekong provinces was the first government-led Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and sanitation marketing pilot in Lao PDR. The program has stimulated considerable interest in, and support for, the approach within the National Center for Environmental Health and Water Supply (Nam Saat) of the Ministry of Health.

A short advocacy video, “Latrine Makes Good Business”, aims to encourage potential entrepreneurs to explore the sanitation business. It highlights a market opportunity for an aspirational and affordable sanitation product that provides customers with a one-stop service. The video briefly introduces sanitation marketing interventions that are being undertaken and collaboration with the public sector to facilitate connections between suppliers and consumers.

 


Filed under: Economic Benefits Tagged: Lao PDR, Sanitation as a business

Who Delivers without Water? A Multi Country Analysis of Water and Sanitation in the Childbirth Environment

22 August 2016 12:01 (America/New_York)

Who Delivers without Water? A Multi Country Analysis of Water and Sanitation in the Childbirth Environment. PLoS One, Aug 2016.

Authors: Giorgia Gon, María Clara Restrepo-Méndez, et. al.

Background and Objectives – Hygiene during childbirth is essential to the health of mothers and newborns, irrespective of where birth takes place. This paper investigates the status of water and sanitation in both the home and facility childbirth environments, and for whom and where this is a more significant problem.

Methods – We used three datasets: a global dataset, with information on the home environment from 58 countries, and two datasets for each of four countries in Eastern Africa: a healthcare facility dataset, and a dataset that incorporated information on facilities and the home environment to create a comprehensive description of birth environments in those countries. We constructed indices of improved water, and improved water and sanitation combined (WATSAN), for the home and healthcare facilities. The Joint Monitoring Program was used to construct indices for household; we tailored them to the facility context–household and facility indices include different components. We described what proportion of women delivered in an environment with improved WATSAN. For those women who delivered at home, we calculated what proportion had improved WATSAN by socio-economic status, education and rural-urban status.

Results – Among women delivering at home (58 countries), coverage of improved WATSAN by region varied from 9% to 53%. Fewer than 15% of women who delivered at home in Sub-Saharan Africa, had access to water and sanitation infrastructure (range 0.1% to 37%). This was worse among the poorest, the less educated and those living in rural areas. In Eastern Africa, where we looked at both the home and facility childbirth environment, a third of women delivered in an environment with improved water in Uganda and Rwanda; whereas, 18% of women in Kenya and 7% in Tanzania delivered with improved water and sanitation. Across the four countries, less than half of the facility deliveries had improved water, or improved water and sanitation in the childbirth environment.

Conclusions – Access to water and sanitation during childbirth is poor across low and middle-income countries. Even when women travel to health facilities for childbirth, they are not guaranteed access to basic WATSAN infrastructure. These indicators should be measured routinely in order to inform improvements.

 

 


Filed under: Hygiene Promotion, Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: childbirth, infant health, maternal child health

The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) at the World Water Week 2016 in Stockholm

22 August 2016 9:28 (America/New_York)

The World Water Week 2016 in Stockholm is lying ahead and the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) will be Co-Convener of several exciting events related to WASH and Sustainable Sanitation. Moreover, the 22nd SuSanA Meeting (27th of August) as well as several SuSanA Working Group Meetings will take place during the SWWW. Make sure to take a look at the official SWWW SuSanA Flyer (link below) to find out more about the event topics and their schedule.

Apart from the events themselves the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance will be hosting an official SuSanA Booth (Booth No. 44) where you can have interesting conversations on the topic or simply read through some of the latest SuSanA publications.

For all people that are interested but not able to join the SWWW there will be a Live Stream of the SuSanA events as well as live Twitter updates using the hashtag #22susana

If you want to register for the SuSanA events at the SWWW you can find the registration link as well as more information here: http://www.susana.org/en/events/susana-meetings/2016/505-22nd-susana-meeting-stockholm

Lastly, if you have any questions or comments you can post them on the SuSanA Forum (after registration): http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/232-susana-meetings/18372-22nd-susana-meeting-27-august-2016-and-susana-events-at-world-water-week-in-stockholm

SuSanA_Events_SWWW2016_Flyer

 


Filed under: Campaigns and Events, Hygiene Promotion, Progress on Sanitation, Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized, Web sites

The Role of Network Science in Analyzing Slums in Rapidly Growing Urban Areas

19 August 2016 9:25 (America/New_York)

The Role of Network Science in Analyzing Slums in Rapidly Growing Urban Areas | Source: ETH Zurich, Aug 19 2016 |

As Amy Krakowka Richmond and her colleagues see it, military forces operating in nonlinear urban and urban-fringe environments will increasingly have to deal with volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA) settings. So, what can these forces do to analyze and anticipate these contexts effectively? Use the latest insights from network theory, argue the authors.

An excerpt: Using Water Resources to Explain Informal Governance Structure

As water is critical for health and wellness of any community, its distribution is absolutely central for maintaining peace and coordination of a region. Urban and peri-urban communities of developing societies offer insights about how both formal government and informal power hierarchy can determine access and control of limited resources. We illustrate the utility of network models by exploring network maps of water availability in urban and peri-urban regions in the developing world. Historically, tension has been fueled when disparate social classes with numerous ethnic affiliations from distinct regions of a state are brought into close proximity and forced to rely on restricted resources. In many cases, political and other influential entities can act as informal gatekeepers, whose role can either aggravate or alleviate such tensions. The complexity of the problem is only made worse by the lack of centralized oversight of the various natural resources, such as water, food, and energy, as well as the physical land upon which these resources are drawn. We suggest that this problem be examined from a systems perspective, by mapping, quantifying and evaluating how well various interdependent systems related to water supply are maintained and balanced. In the figure above we show the various networks that are likely involved in the access and consumption of water.

The water access and consumption network isolates where and how the resources directly impact the population. This network is bi-modal as it is made up two types of nodes: water consumers and water sources. The links indicate which households get water from which source(s). Water is consumed primarily by three sectors: agriculture, households and commercial operations. This network directly reflects constraints to water access—­­how far and how many sources can households access. Households can obtain water from multiple sources. In sub-Saharan Africa for example, a significant portion of the population lacks access to piped water and therefore households rely primarily on springs, communal taps, and open water sources such as lakes and rivers. Analysis of this network can show how water consumption relies on particular types of sources and which suppliers in turn wield the most economic and possibly social and political influence.

The water distribution infrastructure network traces how communal taps and other point-of-service water sources obtain their water. In most cities this supply network consists of multiple connected components of varying sizes and capacities. Successfully mapping the city’s water distribution network could have important implications for residents’ vulnerability in the event of conflict or the outbreak of a waterborne illness such as cholera. Understanding this layer of the network could be significant for the tactical forces in a military operation of any nature.

The resource management network shows which actors control and govern the use of communal resources, including food, water, sanitation, and land. For water, these actors include the city’s official piped water supplier, city-wide agencies, local municipal councils, community organizations, local “strongmen” and their associates, as well as individuals who own or control particular taps, toilets, plots of land, and so forth. Understanding these connections can explain what barriers exist and which actors are needed to be included before operational changes can be implemented. In addition, network analysis can identify potential flashpoints for conflict over these resources, be they “turf wars” over the right to sell services, land-ownership disputes, resistance against the expansion of city services into new areas, or a conflict over resource control.

 

 


Filed under: Research Tagged: network science, networks

Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi

18 August 2016 14:37 (America/New_York)

Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi | PloS One, Aug 2016.

Authors: Richard M. Chunga , Jeroen H. J. Ensink, Marion W. Jenkins, Joe Brown

This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta.

A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines.

In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas.

Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan).

Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full.

This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users.

To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge.


Filed under: Africa Tagged: Malawi, sanitation technologies, urban sanitation

Transforming Haiti With An Endless Local Resource

18 August 2016 14:10 (America/New_York)

Transforming Haiti With An Endless Local Resource | National Geographic, Aug 18 2016 |

Everyone poops. But not many people really think about what happens to it. We flush the toilet and it is out of sight and out of mind. Sasha Kramer, on the other hand, has poop on her mind all the time.

Sasha Kramer visits the community of Shada, where SOIL has provided ecological sanitation for ten years. Photograph by James M. Felter

She is a sanitation revolutionary helping to transform human waste into fertile organic compost for agriculture and reforestation in Haiti. “Arguably,” Kramer says, “the most important thing in nature is soil, that’s where all life comes from.”

Kramer is an ecologist, human rights advocate, National Geographic emerging explorer, and the executive director of Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL). SOIL primarily focuses on promoting the use of ecological sanitation, a process that uses naturally occurring microbes and heat to convert human waste to rich compost.

Ecological sanitation at SOIL means dry composting toilets, which can be simple and low cost so that it works even in crowded, informal settlement communities where there is little infrastructure.

Read the complete article.


Filed under: Economic Benefits, Uncategorized Tagged: compost

U.N. Admits Role In Haiti Cholera Outbreak That Has Killed Thousands

18 August 2016 14:01 (America/New_York)

U.N. Admits Role In Haiti Cholera Outbreak That Has Killed Thousands | Source: NPR, Aug 18 2016 |

In the fall of 2010, months after a devastating earthquake struck Haiti, a new disaster began: a cholera outbreak that killed thousands of people and continues to sicken people across the country.

Cholera patients are treated at the Cholera Treatment Center in the Carrefour area of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in December 2014. The Caribbean country’s cholera outbreak started in 2010. Hector Retamal/AFP/Getty Images

Experts determined that the source of the disease was a U.N. peacekeeping camp. And now, nearly six years later, the United Nations has admitted it played some role in the deadly outbreak.

At a briefing Thursday, U.N. spokesman Farhan Haq said that over the course of the past year, “the U.N. has become convinced that it needs to do much more regarding its own involvement in the initial outbreak and the suffering of those affected by cholera.”

He said the U.N. would announce new actions to address the issue within the next two months.

“Our legal position on this issue has not changed,” Haq said, adding that the U.N. was not describing any of its actions as “reparations.”

Read the complete article.

 

 


Filed under: Latin America & Caribbean, Sanitation and Health Tagged: cholera, Haiti

Sewage sludge could make great sustainable fertilizer

18 August 2016 13:52 (America/New_York)

Sewage sludge could make great sustainable fertilizer | Source: Phys.org, Aug 15 2016 |

Ever thought of putting sewage on your plants? Scientists say thermally conditioned sewage sludge serves as an excellent fertilizer to improve soil properties. This was recently published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Nutrition. The major advantage over commercial fertilizers? Sustainable re-use of essential and finite phosphorus resources.

Phosphorus is a key nutrient for all living beings. When deficient in the diet, it severely compromises human health, and when deficient in agriculture, it restricts crop productivity. Without , there can be no food production.

As the source of phosphorus is non-renewable phosphate rocks, there is a strong need for increased recycling to ensure phosphorus security. Efficient use and reduced environmental dissemination of phosphorus throughout the food system is needed to secure the ability to feed a growing global population.

As technological improvements increased the of , it now is a readily available alternative to commercial fertilizers in agriculture. To assess its effectiveness, Andry Andriamananjara from the University of Antananarivo (Madagascar) and his colleagues used a phosphorus radiotracer technique to measure the availability of phosphorus for plants in thermally conditioned sewage sludge.

They grew ryegrass in pots filled with soil that underwent isotopic P-labelling, and added either no , thermally conditioned sewage sludge as fertilizer, or commercial triple superphosphate fertilizer. Shoot and roots were harvested at fixed intervals, and their radioactivity was analyzed to measure phosphorus uptake.

As expected, fertilizer application increased shoot biomass significantly over the harvest time, while only a trend towards an increase in root biomass was found. The addition of fertilizer increased phosphorus uptake by the plants. This wasn’t only because the fertilizer offered an additional phosphorus source, but also because the plants increased their soil exploitation.

However, total phosphorus uptake from thermally conditioned sewage sludge was lower than that from the commercial fertilizer. This could be explained by the fact that the phosphorus in the water-soluble commercial fertilizer is immediately available for plant uptake after application, whereas the phosphorus in thermally conditioned sewage sludge is present in a lower available form. Moreover, the other nutrients present in the sludge stimulated the microbial activity, thereby inducing competition between microorganisms and the plant roots for phosphorus uptake.

Dr. Andriamananjara would still recommend the usage of sewage sludge as fertilizer. He said: “It was shown to have a higher agronomic effectiveness in comparison with commercial fertilizer. Although on the short term it enhanced the microbial biomass and therefore phosphorus immobilization, on the longer term the phosphorus captured by this microbial biomass can again become available for the plants. Moreover, sewage sludge is a non-limited continuously available and sustainable fertilizer source.”

This research was published in the Research Topic “Sustainable Phosphorus”. This Topic gather papers covering the various issues regarding the efficient and sustainable use of phosphorus resources at a range of scales: from local to global, from agriculture to waste management.

Explore further: Rethinking the value of sewage sludge 

More information: Andry Andriamananjara et al, Drivers of Plant-Availability of Phosphorus from Thermally Conditioned Sewage Sludge as Assessed by Isotopic Labeling, Frontiers in Nutrition (2016). DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2016.00019

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-08-sewage-sludge-great-sustainable-fertilizer.html#jCp


Filed under: Research Tagged: fertilizer, sludge, sludge reuse

I get height with a little help from my friends: herd protection from sanitation on child growth in rural Ecuador

18 August 2016 13:40 (America/New_York)

I get height with a little help from my friends: herd protection from sanitation on child growth in rural EcuadorInt. J. Epidemiol. (2016), doi: 10.1093/ije/dyv368, First published online: March 2, 2016.

Background: Infectious disease interventions, such as vaccines and bed nets, have the potential to provide herd protection to non-recipients. Similarly, improved sanitation in one household may provide community-wide benefits if it reduces contamination in the shared environment. Sanitation at the household level is an important predictor of child growth, but less is known about the effect of sanitation coverage in the community.

Methods: From 2008 to 2013, we took repeated anthropometric measurements on 1314 children under 5 years of age in 24 rural Ecuadorian villages. Using mixed effects regression, we estimated the association between sanitation coverage in surrounding households and child growth.

Results: Sanitation coverage in the surrounding households was strongly associated with child height, as those with 100% coverage in their surroundings had a 67% lower prevalence of stunting [prevalence ratio (PR) 0.32, 95% CI 0.15-0.69] compared with those with 0% coverage. Children from households with improved sanitation had a lower prevalence of stunting (PR 0.86, 95% CI 0.64-1.15). When analysing height as a continuous outcome, the protective effect of sanitation coverage is manifested primarily among girls during the second year of life, the time at which growth faltering is most likely to occur.

Conclusions: Our study highlights that a household’s sanitation practices can provide herd protection to the overall community. Studies which fail to account for the positive externalities that sanitation provides will underestimate the overall protective effect. Future studies could seek to identify a threshold of sanitation coverage, similar to a herd immunity threshold, to provide coverage and compliance targets.

 


Filed under: Latin America & Caribbean, Sanitation and Health Tagged: Ecuador, herd protection, household sanitation

Nudge for good: How insights from behavioral economics can improve the world— and manipulate people

17 August 2016 14:37 (America/New_York)

Nudge for good: How insights from behavioral economics can improve the world— and manipulate people | Source: World Bank Blog, Aug 16 2016 |

Richard H. Thaler is a world-renowned behavioral economist and professor of finance and psychology. Recently, he was interviewed by The Economist. The discussion covers some of the fundamental studies in the field, like “save more tomorrow” which encourages people to save more by signing up to increase their savings rate every year and auto-enrollment for pensions that have drastically increased employee participation in pension funds. 

Thaler also suggests, in the interview, that behavioral economics has the ability to influence human behavior for both good and bad.  He argues that much of what behavioral economics does is remove barriers.

The goal is not to change people but to make life easier, but that idea can be skewed by organizations or individuals looking to capitalize on the biases of people. Whenever he is asked to sign a copy of his book Nudge, he writes “nudge for good” which is a plea, he says, to improve the lives of people and avoid insidious behavior.

The list of ways companies nudge behavior is endless, and I would love to hear more examples from you all in the comments section. In the meantime here are a few- I’ll let you judge which ones “nudge for good”:

  • Waterborne diseases such as cholera cause widespread illness, especially among children, in developing countries without nation-wide water and sanitation networks. In Kenya, chlorine tablets are distributed by NGOs and other organizations, and people generally understand that the tablets disinfect their water, protecting them from disease. Nevertheless, usage rates are often low. Cost is not the barrier here, convenience is because routinely purifying water requires energy and attention. Michael Kremer of Harvard University and his colleagues found, through a series of randomized controlled trials conducted in Kenya, that providing chlorine as a concentrated liquid at prominently displayed dispensers at local water sources dramatically increase the rate of disinfection. The dispensers provided a visual reminder when and water was collected and made it easy to add the right does. Along with promotion by community members, this approach increased chlorine use by 53%. Thus, making it easier to disinfect water increased the rates at which tablets are used.

Read the complete article.


Filed under: Hygiene Promotion Tagged: behaviour change, nudging

The ‘perennial hope’: private sector investment in WASH in Nigeria

16 August 2016 11:36 (America/New_York)

The ‘perennial hope’: private sector investment in WASH in Nigeria | Source: WaterAid Blog, Aug 11 2016 |

With WASH in Nigeria suffering low levels of investment, and current investments performing poorly, Michael Ojo, Country Director for WaterAid Nigeria, asks why the Nigerian water sector remains such an unattractive proposition for investors.

As things stand, the true extent of national funding for WASH in Nigeria is difficult to ascertain.

Community members collecting water from one of the two functioning boreholes in Etenyi village, Ado Local government area, Benue state, Nigeria. Adequate funds in the WASH sector and proper targeting of those funds will help ensure we reach everyone with these life-saving services.

Although the country’s water utilities receive subventions from the Government, funding allocations are inadequate, resulting not only in these utilities producing below capacity but also in a widening of the financing gap for infrastructure investments and maintenance over the years. Investment in strengthening the utilities’ structure and systems has also been insufficient.

Urban utilities have not only not extended their coverage in terms of connections, these have actually declined significantly – from 32% in 1990 to 3% in 2015, according to the 2015 Update Report of the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of WHO and UNICEF.

From whichever angle you look at it, this level of service can only be described as paltry – but it also underlines the opportunity presented. Revenue streams from taxes have not grown, customers are not metered, and the collection efficiency of tariffs and charges remains one of the lowest in the world.

Read the complete article.

 


Filed under: Africa, Progress on Sanitation Tagged: Nigeria, Private sector

John Oldfield: How to Get Ahead of Zika – and the Next One

16 August 2016 10:57 (America/New_York)

How to Get Ahead of Zika – and the Next One | Source: OOSKAnews Voices, Aug 16 2016 |

At a recent forum on global development in Washington DC, the United States Deputy Homeland Security Advisor asserted that the U.S. government cannot merely react or respond to Zika. She is right. The U.S. and the entire global community must find ways to get ahead of its spread, and look for opportunities to prevent, or at least mitigate the severity of, the next such water-related infectious disease.

John Oldfield, CEO of Water 2017

Increased focus on global water security provides such an opportunity.

In 2012, the United States intelligence community produced an Intelligence Community Assessment on Global Water Security. The report asserts that “during the next 10 years, many countries important to the United States will experience water problems — shortages, poor water quality, or floods — that will risk instability and state failure, increase regional tensions, and distract them from working with the United States on important US policy objectives.”

Water scarcity leads to water hoarding, and families often hoard water in such a way as to facilitate the breeding of mosquitoes. More mosquitoes may lead to a more rapid transmission of Zika, malaria and the next water-related infectious disease. Importantly, as this progression holds true, so does its inverse. Headlines scream that water will cause wars, but the opposite has historically held true. Water brings parties together before conflict erupts. Headlines declare that unsafe water kills millions of people each year. What they don’t say is that safe water (and proper disposal of human waste) keeps billions alive, healthy, and in school or at work.

We can predict the future of water. We know when and where water scarcity will occur with increasingly accurate, granular, and long-term forecasts, even accounting for a changing climate and population growth and movement. Donor and developing country governments along with private sector stakeholders should combine this stronger forecasting ability with deployable assets – people, technology, money – to:

  • identify shared river basins where a lack of institutional capacity is likely to lead to conflict over water resources, then strengthen the capacity of those riparian states and subnational stakeholders to prevent conflict;

Read the complete article.


Filed under: Sanitation and Health, Uncategorized Tagged: zika virus

SuSanA monthly webinar: Understanding the role of learning and donor-implementer relationships, Thursday August 25th 2016, 12:00 BST (London time)

16 August 2016 9:46 (America/New_York)
The SuSanA monthly series is back, so please join us for this month’s webinar: ‘Meeting the hidden needs of change-agents in the WASH sector: Understanding the role of learning and donor-implementer relationships’ scheduled for Thursday August 25th 2016 at 12:00 BST (London time), see below for more timezones.

Overview:

This webinar will bring perspectives on two rarely discussed obstacles that innovators face in doing impactful work: the role of learning processes and the role of donor-implementer relationships:Emily Endres, Results for Development Institute: 6 barriers local change-agents face when implementing new ideas or approaches & ideas for overcoming these challenges

Because of the important role civil society organizations play in global development, international development organizations and donors want to support capacity building as well as knowledge sharing and learning within this group. Millions of dollars are invested each year in events and programs designed to disseminate information, share knowledge and build skills, but little is understood about what happens after learners leave the “hotel conference room”. This is called “the Monday morning problem.” After a learner develops or encounters a new approach or skill that they want to integrate into their program or organization, what barriers do they face when they go back to work on Monday morning and try to implement the new idea? Since 2014, Results for Development (R4D) has conducted a series of interviews, focus group discussions, and surveys with WASH program managers based in India and East Africa. This presentation will focus on six major barriers that were identified to implementing new ideas learned from their peers or from other knowledge sharing activities, and discuss a set of recommendations for fellow program implementers, international development partners, and donors or investors to improve the learning and adaptation process.

Susan Davis, Improve International: Is money the root of some evil? Investigating whether donor restrictions affect the sustainability of water and sanitation interventions

In the development world, money makes the world go around. Donors large and small from many countries have funded efforts to address water issues for decades. This is good news. But is all this money leading to good work? Many evaluations of programs have been done, but they haven’t looked rigorously at how things are funded. Improve International decided to examine this issue by seeking the perceptions of people who work for WASH development organizations. In 2015, we distributed an online survey to organizations that receive funds from US-based donors to implement or fund water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions. You might be surprised by some of the differences we found in perceptions. We plan to distribute this survey annually to get more opinions and see whether alignment is changing over time, so we’d like your feedback and input.

Schedule: The webinar will last approximately 1 hour with two 15 minutes presentations followed by an open discussion with webinar participants. We will also open the session 30 minutes beforehand for a low-key ‘mingle’ among participants, where you can use your computer video or microphone.

The webinar is being hosted by Stockholm Environment Institute and the SuSanA secretariat as part of a grant to SEI funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Time:
7:00 New York/Washington DC
12:00 London
13:00 Stockholm
14:00 Nairobi
16:30 New Delhi
18:00 Hanoi
21:00 Sydney

To register please follow this link: http://www.susana.org/webinar-registration

Link for the webinar: seint.adobeconnect.com/seiwebinar/

Log-on password: webinar2016


Filed under: Uncategorized

Pages

fhi360 care Winrock International

The information provided on this web site is not official U.S. Government information and does not represent the views or positions of the U.S. Agency for International Development or the U.S. Government.