Seeking Sanitation Success | Source: Improve International, May 2 2016 |
The sanitation sector has evolved over decades. Yet, in 2015, the target year for the Millennium Development Goals, much remains to be done: 2.4 billion people lack access to improved sanitation and almost 1 billion people practice open defecation, nine out of ten in rural areas (WHO/UNICEF, 2015).
While some attempts to determine what works over time have been made, comparable information is scarce. This is an important gap to overcome, and to overcome quickly, because Sustainable Development Goal 6 (UN) aims “to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all” in just 14 years.
The purpose of this meta-evaluation was to attempt to identify which sanitation approaches in developing countries have been effective and sustainable, so that sector actors can position themselves for achieving universal sanitation services.
This work is divided into two phases: the desk review and expert consultation (Phase I) and in-depth country case studies (Phase II). The Seeking Sanitation Successes Fact Sheet summarizes the output of Phase I, which recommended countries for Phase II. Please get in touch if you are interested in collaborating on the Phase II research.
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Progress on Sanitation, Sanitary Facilities Tagged: Improve International, sanitation success
WASH Futures 2016 – Pathways to universal and sustained water, sanitation and hygiene
The future of action on WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) looks positive – with the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals global agenda maintaining attention on the need for water, sanitation and hygiene for everyone, all the time. But the path to achieving this global agenda requires new ways of thinking.
How can all WASH actors – governments, private sectors and civil society – work together to ensure WASH, whether at community-scales or larger institutional-scales, to achieve not only sustained access for everyone, but also health, well-being, environmental and economic outcomes for societies?
In May 2016 practitioners and professionals from civil society, governments, private sectors, donors, students and academic institutions, will come together to contribute to the broader international WASH dialogue and share knowledge with the Australian WASH community and partners.
Go to the conference website.
Filed under: Campaigns and Events
Three out of five Ghanaians practice open defecation, UNICEF says | Source: Pulse.com, April 30, 2016 |
Three out of five Ghanaians practice open defecation, UNICEF says, adding that Ghana could take 500 years to eliminate the practice due to the slow pace at which strategies, laws and interventions are being implemented.
Open defecation is the practice of attending natures call in the bush, at the beach, in drains and dump sites. The Chief Officer at the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, WASH, Unit of UNICEF Ghana, David Duncan, notes that in the last 25 years, Ghana made one percent progress at eliminating the practice.
Duncan made these known at a workshop in Cape Coast for members of the Parliamentary Press Corps on open defecation. According to him, though the current pace is nothing to write home about, he was hopeful Ghana could achieve an Open Defecation Free society within the four-year national target if actions are expedited on all fronts.
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Africa, Progress on Sanitation Tagged: Ghana, open defecation
Below are links to the abstracts or full text of recently published articles:
Access to sanitation and violence against women: evidence from Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data in Kenya. Int J Environ Health Res. 2016 June.
This study analyzed 2008 Kenya Demographic Health Survey’s data and found women who primarily practice open defecation (OD), particularly in disorganized communities, had higher odds of experiencing recent non-partner violence
Untangling the Impacts of Climate Change on Waterborne Diseases: a Systematic Review of Relationships between Diarrheal Diseases and Temperature, Rainfall, Flooding, and Drought. Environ Sci Technol. 2016 Apr 25.
Key areas of agreement include a positive association between ambient temperature and diarrheal diseases, with the exception of viral diarrhea and an increase in diarrheal disease following heavy rainfall and flooding events. Insufficient evidence was available to evaluate the effects of drought on diarrhea. There is evidence to support the biological plausibility of these associations, but publication bias is an ongoing concern.
The Impact of a School-Based Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Program on Absenteeism, Diarrhea, and Respiratory Infection: A Matched–Control Trial in Mali. Amer Jnl Trop Med Hyg, Current issue
Abstract – http://www.ajtmh.org/content/early/2016/04/21/ajtmh.15-0757.abstract
We found that a school-based WASH intervention can have a positive effect on reducing rates of illness, as well as absence due to diarrhea. However, we did not find evidence that these health impacts led to a reduction in overall absence. Higher absence rates are less likely attributable to the intervention than the result of an imbalance in unobserved confounders between study groups.
Recommendations for dealing with waste contaminated with Ebola virus: a Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points approach. WHO Bulletin, forthcoming issue.
Full text – http://www.who.int/bulletin/online_first/BLT.15.163931.pdf?ua=1
The risk of the waste-related transmission of Ebola virus could be reduced by the use of full personal protective equipment, appropriate hand hygiene and an appropriate disinfectant after careful cleaning. Use of the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework could facilitate rapid responses to outbreaks of emerging infectious disease
Long-term evaluation of the performance of four point-of-use water filters. Water Res. 2016 Apr 12.
The aim of this study was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions over 14 months, the performance of four household filtration systems: membrane filter (MF), one-candle ceramic filter (1CCF), two-candle ceramic filter (2CCF) and pot ceramic filter (PCF).
Urban Water Services in Fragile States: An Analysis of Drinking Water Sources and Quality in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, and Monrovia, Liberia. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, current issue.
In anticipation of water infrastructure investments, this study compares drinking water sources and quality between Port Harcourt, Nigeria, and Monrovia, Liberia, two cities recovering from political and economic instability. In both cities, access to piped water is low, and residents rely on a range of other private and public water sources.
Environmental factors and population at risk of malaria in Nkomazi municipality, South Africa. Trop Med Intl Health, May 2016
Abstract – http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tmi.12680/abstract
The multivariate model showed that with 10% increase in the extent of irrigated areas, malaria risk increased by almost 39% in the entire study area and by almost 44% in the 2-km buffer zone of selected villages.
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, Research, Sanitation and Health Tagged: climate change, gender issues, WASH in schools
The webinar brought together speakers who presented their perspectives on how we can improve WASH behavior change. First, we learnt about how we can do a better job of leveraging the influence of community leaders to change some of the social and cultural norms that prevent uptake of healthy WASH behaviors. The role of both formal and informal leaders was explored, as well as how to extend this collaboration beyond CLTS to incorporate it more into other WASH approaches.
Filed under: Hygiene Promotion, Web sites Tagged: behavior change, webinars
The Global Sanitation Fund (GSF), in partnership with the GSF-funded ‘Fonds d’Appui pour l’Assainissement’ (FAA) programme in Madagascar, have launched a new handbook on accelerating and sustaining the end of open defecation.
The handbook was launched during the GSF Learning Event in Antananarivo, Madagascar, inaugurated by Madagascar’s Minister of Water Sanitation and Hygiene, Roland Ravatomanga.
The ‘Follow-up MANDONA’ (FUM) handbook is a field guide for practitioners of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) – an empowering approach for improving sanitation and hygiene through collective behaviour change, rather than external subsidies or prescription. FUM aims to systematically engage communities after they have been initially ‘triggered’ and committed to ending open defecation.
‘Mandona’ is a Malagasy word which means ‘to push’. FUM brings the entire community together for a self-analysis of their sanitation situation, which then helps them immediately create models that prevent the ingestion of faeces. The approach harnesses the power of Natural Leaders to replicate these models across the community, which includes helping those that are least able, in order to advance to ODF status. By focusing on sustainable behaviour change, FUM is also a useful tool for addressing issues surrounding ‘slippage’, which relates to returning to previous unhygienic behaviours.
FUM was developed and refined by MIARINTSOA NGO, a sub-grantee of the FAA programme. Given the success of FUM in Madagascar and elsewhere, the GSF and FAA created the FUM handbook to provide a practical guide for how CLTS practitioners can implement the approach in their own contexts.
The weeklong global event where the handbook was launched brings together implementing partners, WASH experts, and high-level government representatives from GSF-supported programmes. These actors are exchanging ideas and sharing best practices for achieving improved sanitation and hygiene behaviour at scale.
During the launch, WSSCC Executive Director Chris Williams highlighted how FUM is engraining the sustainability of sanitation and hygiene behaviour change in Madagascar and beyond. “Once a village, or an entire commune, has reached ODF status, the story isn’t over. In fact, the work continues. This important publication documents the innovations that Madagascar has put together to systematically follow-up with villages. FUM aims to ensure that the change in attitudes and creation of convictions that my ‘sanitation problem is your sanitation problem’ – ‘or my shit is your shit’ – is dealt with as a collective community effort.”
FUM has become one of FAA’s most important tools for empowering over 1.6 million people to live in open defecation free environments on their own terms. Due to its success in Madagascar, FUM has recently become a core strategy for national sanitation and hygiene programmes in Uganda, Nigeria, Benin, and Togo.
Kamal Kar, the Chairman of the CLTS Foundation, which has extensively supported the FAA programme to develop their CLTS approach, emphasized the importance of the handbook in sharing proven approaches to practitioners around the world: “I am glad that the Malagasy NGO, MIARINTSOA, with the help of the FAA programme, WSSCC and the GSF, has systematically documented their experience of post-triggering follow-up from their implementation of CLTS over the last 4-5 years. Publication of this Follow-up MANDONA handbook is indeed a step forward towards country-wide scaling up of good practice of CLTS in Madagascar and beyond.”
“I must say that the emergence of thousands of ODF villages in Madagascar, starting with my multiple support visits to the country since 2010 to strengthen the approach, is a brilliant example of quality CLTS implementation with its central philosophy of local empowerment. I believe that this handbook will be useful in understanding and ensuring post-triggering follow-up in CLTS for sustained behaviour change.”
Find out more about the Global Sanitation Fund on the WSSCC website.
Filed under: Progress on Sanitation, Uncategorized Tagged: behaviour change, changing behaviour, CLTS, GSF, Madagascar, sanitation, Sustainability
Three things that make SaniPath special | Source: SaniPath blog, April 21 2016 |
The SaniPath team has created an exposure assessment tool to be used in urban low-resource areas with poor sanitation. It stands out as a resource for its accessibility, easy to understand results, and potential to influence policy making.
1. THE SANIPATH TOOL IS EASY TO USE AND UNDERSTAND
The tool was designed with the goal that it would be able to be used independently by a variety of organizations interested in improving sanitation. It comes with a detailed manual describing the steps of the data collection and the analyses process than can be understood by anyone with a basic scientific background. Minimum requirements for use of the tool include:
- A funding source (ex: local government or international organization)
- A lab with the ability to detect E. coli and technicians to carry out the procedures in a sterile environment
- A team with experience conducting surveys
- A local group to assist with data collection and distribution
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Education & training, Web sites Tagged: SaniPath, urban sanitation
Barbara Frost on the rise and rise of WaterAid | Source: Third Sector, April 22 2016 |
The chief executive has led the charity for a decade of almost uninterrupted success and has escaped the fire directed at others.
In 1972 Barbara Frost left Keele University after two years studying psychology and social sciences, and went on what was intended to be a gap year. She took the so-called magic bus to Istanbul, continued by public transport on the hippy trail to India and Nepal, and ended up living in a commune in Australia. She didn’t come back to England for 24 years.
During that time she made rapid progress in public service jobs, developed homecare services in New South Wales and worked for Oxfam, Save the Children and ActionAid in Mozambique and Malawi. And when she finally returned to England in the mid-1990s it was to head the charity Action on Development and Disability – based, by coincidence, where she grew up, near Frome in Somerset.
She’s now been chief executive for a decade of one of the UK’s most successful and highly regarded charities, which works to provide water, sanitation and hygiene in 31 developing countries. Since 2010 she has also led WaterAid International, the federation set up to coordinate the UK charity’s relations with WaterAids that have sprung up in the US, Canada, Australia, Sweden and India.
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Policy Tagged: Barbara Frost, WaterAid
Exploring the Potential of Antimicrobial Hand Hygiene Products in Reducing the Infectious Burden in Low-Income Countries: An Integrative Review. American Journal of Infection Control, April 2016. The study looks at whether adding antimicrobial agents to hand hygiene products increases the health benefits of handwashing with plain soap in low-income settings.
What is Sanitation Success? Improve International, April 2016. This desk review found there was not one widely accepted definition of sanitation success, even for broadly used approaches like community-led total sanitation.
Ruminants Contribute Fecal Contamination to the Urban Household Environment in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environmental Science & Technology, April 2016. Results suggest that effective household fecal management should account not only for human sources of contamination, but also for animal sources.
Can Behavior Change Approaches Improve the Cleanliness and Functionality of Shared Toilets? Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor, 2016. A research project in Dhaka looks at whether behavior change strategies help users keep their toilets clean and functional.
Urban Solutions: Metropolitan Approaches, Innovation in Urban Water and Sanitation, and Inclusive Smart Cities: A New Generation of Ideas. Wilson Center, March 2016. The Wilson Center’s Urban Sustainability Laboratory, Cities Alliance, Global Coalition for Inclusive Housing and Sustainable Cities, USAID, and the World Bank are cosponsoring the Reducing Urban Poverty Paper Competition for advanced graduate students. The competition seeks to encourage a new generation of urban policymakers and promote early career research.
Innovation in Scaling Up Access to Water and Sanitation Services in Kenya. Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), 2015. An analysis and summary of the World Bank WSP’s technical assistance to five cities in Kenya. The objective of this technical assistance was to increase access to water and sanitation services by the urban poor in peri-urban areas.
Innovation in the Sanitation Sector: e-Catalogue for Individual Household Toilets.Water for People, 2016. The e-Catalogue, developed in India, is a flash-based software application for desktops and laptops, and an Android application for tablets and smartphones. With the e-Catalogue, a family or customer can design their own toilet based on their individual budget. The e-Catelogue also helps generate demand among households to choose and construct their desired toilet models.
Filed under: Research
Global Waters Radio: Darren Saywell on Community-Led Total Sanitation
Darren Saywell is Senior Director for the Water, Sanitation and Health Practice with Plan International USA, an international NGO with a presence in more than 70 countries around the world.
For the past four years, Plan International has teamed up with the Water Institute at the University of North Carolina on “Testing Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Approaches for Scalability,” an operational research initiative funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
The project has conducted extensive analysis on the role and effectiveness of local actors in community-led total sanitation (CLTS) in 10 countries across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. It has collected hard evidence that attests to the methodology’s effectiveness in enabling large-scale sanitation behavior change.
In this conversation with Global Waters Radio Saywell talks about the key findings of the project to date and discusses why it is critical for the sanitation sector to replace anecdotal evidence on CLTS’ effectiveness with rigorous evidence.
Filed under: Progress on Sanitation Tagged: Community-Led Total Sanitation, Darren Saywell, Plan International
After a brief hiatus, USAID’s “Global Waters” magazine is back to bring you water-related stories from around the world!
The magazine continues to provide a visually captivating look at the experiences and views of top development professionals and beneficiaries through a new and improved online format. We hope you enjoy the latest articles. – The Water Team.
Features/articles in this issue include:
- Global Waters Radio: Chris Holmes on Water, Jobs, and Gender Equity
- Making Sanitation Services Affordable in Indonesia’s Cities
- Celebrating Water Heroes
- Breaking the Taboo: How School WASH Impacts Girls’ Education
- Putting Local Wealth to Work for Safe Water Access
- Changing the Landscape for Africa’s Urban Water Services
- Incubating Innovation: Solutions for a Parched Earth
Filed under: Economic Benefits, Progress on Sanitation Tagged: Global Waters, USAID
Financial indicators for water and sanitation at national level: what do we really need to know and early warning system
Financial indicators for water and sanitation at national level: what do we really need to know and early warning system | Source: Catarina Fonseca, IRC Blog, April 18 2016 |
This blog is meant to support those efforts by answering the question: What indicators can be used as a diagnostic tool for the adequacy of budgets and financial flows for water and sanitation?
The current proposed SDG indicator framework will mainly track outcomes: the number of people with access to water and sanitation services. That is what ultimately matters but it is also an indicator that only gives off a ‘late’ alarm. If a country is not showing much progress on access to services yet, it will take several years to address the root causes of the problem. See the blog 15 years to make history, 5 years to make change.
This is the reason why it is also important to track inputs into the sector, particularly money, which can give off an ‘early’ alarm. If for example, analyses show that the funds available for water and sanitation are too little to address financial gaps, it can be addressed much earlier, before it translates into stagnating or lower coverage figures (see for instance Uganda and Tanzania as examples).
Tracking financial indicators does not require sophisticated monitoring systems
The key question is then which financial indicators to track and what level of detail and break-down is needed. This is what was discussed at a recent sector meeting organised by UNICEF and where the inspiration to write this blog comes from.
Tracking financial indicators does not require a sophisticated monitoring system. In my experience, it is perfectly possible to collect this information from secondary sources if there is some openness in sharing government financial flows on water and sanitation. However, it does require a system that is tracking government expenditure at different levels. This is already the case in most public administrations in lower income countries.
The problems emerge in the reconciliation of accounts, the level of disaggregation of data and most important for the water sector: linking the money flowing into the sector with the number of people accessing a decent service. See some examples in the testing phase of the WHO TrackFin methodology in three countries in this flyer.
Read the complete article.
Filed under: Economic Benefits Tagged: financial indicators, sanitation financing
Impact of WASH interventions during disease outbreaks in humanitarian emergencies: A systematic review protocol
Impact of WASH interventions during disease outbreaks in humanitarian emergencies: A systematic review protocol, 2016. Authors: Yates, Travis, Vijcic, Jelena Joseph, Myriam Leandre, Lantagne, Daniele
The purpose of this document is to clearly describe the proposed research questions and methodology for a systematic review on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions in disease outbreaks. The systematic review has a singular overarching objective in assessing the impact of emergency hygiene interventions.
The primary research question will be answered through four secondary objectives that further evaluate: a) use of service and disease reduction; b) positive intervention characteristics; c) cost-effectiveness; and d) non-health related factors of emergency WASH interventions in disease outbreaks.
This review is funded through the Humanitarian Evidence Programme, a UK Aid-funded partnership between Oxfam and Feinstein International Center (FIC) at the Friedman School of Nutrition at Tufts University. The Humanitarian Evidence Programme aims to synthesize evidence in the humanitarian sector and communicate the findings to stakeholders, with the ultimate goal of improving humanitarian policy and practice.
Filed under: Emergency Sanitation Tagged: Oxfam
Policy Note: Should Public Toilets Be Part of Urban Sanitation Solutions for Poor Families Living in Slums?
Policy Note: Should Public Toilets Be Part of Urban Sanitation Solutions for Poor Families Living in Slums? April 2016. Emory University’s Center for Global Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene.
Although households would prefer to have private facilities, conditions suggest that shared public toilets will, for the foreseeable future, continue to be the main available option for defecation in the slums of Accra. In this context, efforts are needed to improve existing and new public toilets to make them hygienic and safely managed in order to provide sanitation services that result in public health benefits.
Since public toilets do not meet the JMP criteria for an improved toilet, they also do not meet current government of Ghana standards. This in turn creates a disincentive for local governments to invest in public toilets and related safe management of the fecal sludge as part of their urban sanitation services.
The findings reported in this policy note lead to the recommendation that in order to protect the public health of families living in urban slums, the government of Ghana should reform their current policies regarding public toilets in urban slums despite not being recognized by the WHO/UNICEF JMP. Reforms to consider include formal recognition of public toilets as viable sanitation solutions, exploring possible partnerships with the private sector to finance, operate and maintain public toilets, development of regulations and standards for public toilets, and effective monitoring of compliance. In addition, the government should review financing approaches to ensure that sanitation services are affordable to all populations living in slum areas.
Filed under: Africa, Sanitary Facilities, Sanitation and Health Tagged: Accra, Ghana, public toilets, shared sanitation
USAID Ethiopia Water Fact Sheet, March 2016. USAID Ethiopia.
Water cuts across nearly every aspect of USAID programming. Used for drinking, hygiene, and health care, water is also needed to irrigate crops, feed livestock and develop renewable energy. Scarce water supplies can become potential sources of conflict.
USAID incorporates WASH activities within its governance, health, nutrition, resilience and emergency assistance activities with a focus on sustainability. USAID also helps strengthen the Ethiopian Government’s capacity to coordinate WASH and water resource management.
Filed under: Africa, Progress on Sanitation, Sanitation and Health Tagged: Ethiopia, USAID
SWIFT Story of Sustainable Change: Improving access to safe, sustainable sanitation in Nadapal, Turkana
SWIFT Story of Sustainable Change: Improving access to safe, sustainable sanitation in Nadapal, Turkana, 2016. OXFAM.
In Nadapal, a village in northern Kenya, residents had no access to sanitation, and instead practised open defecation in the bushes. Illnesses including diarrhoea, malaria and cholera were common.
Now, however, many of the households in Nadapal have built their own latrines within easy reach and have access to safe, sustainable sanitation for the first time, after Practical Action began implementing the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach.
Filed under: Africa Tagged: Community-Led Total Sanitation, Kenya
A member of the community-led total sanitation – CLTS committee in Gallo (Niger) introduces the annual CLTS management plan developed by the village to sustain the ODF (Open Defecation Free) status of the village which was attained 2 years ago.
This plan includes to rehabilitate damaged latrines, to conduct regular monitoring at household level, to organize regular meetings of the village CLTS committee, regular cleaning campaigns and upgrade all latrines in the village (to use hygienic concrete slabs) within a year.
Catholic Relief Services (CRS) PASAM TAI project in Niger funded by USAID/FFP supports the development and management of this type of CLTS sustainable plans in all villages where the project implements CLTS processes.
Filed under: Africa Tagged: Community-Led Total Sanitation
Please join us for a webinar on ‘Opportunities and challenges of achieving WASH behaviour change’ scheduled for April 28th 2016 at 7:00 EDT (Washington time). This is the first webinar in a monthly recurring series on SuSanA.
This webinar will focus on a discussion of achieving WASH behavior change using a ‘low-key’ format to encourage discussion with participants.
The webinar will bring together speakers who will present their perspectives on how we can improve WASH behavior change. First, we will learn about how we can do a better job of leveraging the influence of community leaders to change some of the social and cultural norms that prevent uptake of healthy WASH behaviors. The role of both formal and informal leaders will be explored, as well as how to extend this collaboration beyond CLTS to incorporate it more into other WASH approaches. To launch a conversation about how the topic of behavior change can be furthered within the SuSanA network, we will also discuss how learning and exchange about behavior change can take place on the SuSanA platform.
Emily Endres – Results for Development Institute
Hanna Woodburn – Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing
The webinar will include two 10 minute presentations from the speakers and half an hour time for questions and discussion with webinar participants. We will also open the session 30 minutes beforehand for a low-key ‘mingle’ among participants, where you can use your computer video or microphone.
The webinar is being hosted by Stockholm Environment Institute and the SuSanA secretariat as part of a grant to SEI funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
7:00 New York
Link for registration: www.susana.org/en/webinar-registration
Follow the thematic discussion on working with community leaders to change WASH behaviors here:forum.susana.org/forum/categories/196-ca…hange-wash-behaviors
Filed under: Uncategorized
The SDGs at city level: Mumbai’s example, 2016. Authors: Paula Lucci and Alainna Lynch. Overseas Development Institute.
How countries manage urbanisation over the next 15 years will define governments’ ability to achieve most of the Sustainable Development Goals.
- Our analysis of performance over time (1998–2006) for three SDG targets in Mumbai (at city and slum settlement levels) suggests the target on access to water will be easier to achieve than the sanitation and housing targets.
- However, data limitations at subnational level make it difficult to reach definite conclusions on trends over time, let alone to project performance through 2030 for
these and other targets.
- The SDGs provide an opportunity to set up-to-date credible baselines for cities and slums and to make historical data (where they exist) more accessible, for instance through user-friendly online portals. Having such data would highlight areas where progress needs to be accelerated or trends reversed, motivating city governments and campaigners to act.
Filed under: Progress on Sanitation, South Asia Tagged: India, SDGs
African Government investment in sanitation: 2016 state of play: Finance Brief 9, 2016. Public Finance for WASH.
In May 2015, African leaders committed to budget allocations amounting to 0.5% of their countries’ respective Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to sanitation and hygiene by 2020.
Specifically, this commitment was part of the Ngor Declaration adopted at the fourth African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene (AfricaSan) by ministers responsible for sanitation and hygiene.
This brief explores the context of this commitment: how much are governments currently investing in sanitation? How can this investment be increased?
Filed under: Africa, Economic Benefits, Uncategorized Tagged: sanitation financing