Indoor Air Quality Updates
USAID Nigeria – Energy Efficient Woodstoves for Schools
Nearly all public boarding secondary schools in Nigeria use wood for cooking. About 30 million households depend solely on wood as a source of fuel for their daily cooking. According to the WHO, 95,300 deaths occur in Nigeria annually as a result of smoke from cooking with firewood. After malaria and HIV/AIDS, this is Nigeria’s third highest killer of mostly women and children. Wood use in Nigeria is predominantly through traditional three-stone fires. These fires burn wood inefficiently as most of the heat is lost to the atmosphere. This is a waste of valuable resources both in terms of forest resources, as well as the high cost of buying fuelwood.
This project will build and install clean cookstoves for schools in Cross River and Lagos States. It will build the capacity of stoves producers and help them create markets for their products. In collaboration with the state governments, the project will also help develop strategies for household energy that promotes health, saves family income, enhances environmental protection and empowers women.
This project aims to create a template for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and health risks among women by improving the efficiency of the use of fuelwood in households and institutions. It will contribute to achieving the following key Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Cross River and Lagos States:
- Improve health among female cooks in schools and pilot households (MDG 5);
- Reduce the quantity of wood fuel used for cooking and greenhouse gas emission in participating schools and households. (MDG 7); and
- Create jobs for SMEs and marketers (MDG 1)
The project will deliver the following results:
- 80% wood energy cost savings in schools, annual emissions reductions of 6,300 tons of CO2 and 700 women achieve better respiratory health.
- At least 200 new jobs created from stove production, distribution and retailing, and SMEs empowered by a growing demand for clean cookstoves.
- New sustainable energy policy frameworks for consideration by the governments of Cross River and Lagos States
The project has three main components. These include the following:
- Stove technology development, production, installation and public awareness among students and school authorities. The project will produce and install 60 litre institutional stoves with a proven wood use efficiency of at least 80% in secondary schools and other public institutions in Cross River and Lagos states. In addition, a pilot project will be carried out to test out 100 household stoves with wood use efficiency of at least 50%. The result of this pilot will determine the feasibility of launching a major national household stove initiative. A lesson sharing workshop will be organized to educate students and staff of participating schools and the general public on the benefits of clean cookstoves.
- Technical training and development of business and marketing skills for SMEs, engagement with banks and Micro Finance Institutions. The project will build the technical and business capacity of stove producers in the states. At least 6 metal works SMEs will benefit from the training in stove design and production. By building and delivering quality stove technologies and working with Micro Finance Institutions, producers, distributors and retailers, a basis to engage with the private sector in creating a sustainable market will be established.
- Development and presentations of policy frameworks to Cross River and Lagos State Governments. In partnership with the state government, the project will develop and present policy measures that will further enhance the market for these stoves and clean energy technologies in general. By address existing technology and policy barriers, the project will set the stage to engage with the private sector and financial institutions in delivering a nationwide scale up of the market.
The project will be completed in three years (2012 to 2015).
Rethinking improved cookstove diffusion programs: A case study of social perceptions and cooking choices in rural Guatemala. Energy Policy, 23 November 2013.
Christopher Bieleck, et al.
Promoters of improved cookstoves (ICSs) argue they provide the “triple benefits” of improving health outcomes, preserving local ecosystems, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The majority of ICS research reveals a strong pro-diffusion bias toward proving these benefits. Few studies have examined ICSs from the adopters’ point-of-view.
The purpose of this case study was to describe how culture and social perceptions affect the adoption and use of ICSs. Results showed that stoves in this rural Guatemalan community had several layers of practical importance beyond cooking food. Most prominently, household members valued stoves as heat and light sources, and as a social gathering point for families. Most ICS models have been purposely designed in controlled conditions to deliver maximum heating efficiency at the lowest production cost. However, this case study revealed that the fuel-efficient designs sacrificed important functional, social, and cultural needs.
Efforts to increase adoption rates of ICSs will be more successful if the macro-level “triple benefits” paradigm is adapted to include functional consumer-centric benefits beyond heating food, such as providing heat and ambient light. Adoption programs should account for the cultural and social needs of users, such as recognizing that stoves often serve as a gathering point for families.
Founders of Envirofit International Selected as Energy and the Environment Innovators of the Year by The Economist
Founders of Envirofit International Selected as Energy and the Environment Innovators of the Year by The Economist, Nov 25, 2013.
FORT COLLINS – Tim Bauer, Nathan Lorenz and Bryan Willson, founders of Envirofit International, a company that delivers clean-burning cookstove technology to the developing world, have been named this year’s Energy and Environment Innovators by The Economist magazine, based in London.
The 10-year-old social enterprise, based in Fort Collins, Colo., was recognized for the global impact of its innovative technology and market-based delivery approach that pioneered the clean cookstove marketplace. Envirofit is the global leader in the design, development, and delivery of high performing clean energy cookstoves that that combat air pollution in developing nations. It has grown from its initial concept in the Colorado State University Engines and Energy Conversion Lab to a small pilot project in India with one stove, and from there on to become a worldwide company with multiple different models and 700,000 cookstoves sold across Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
- Link to the complete Press Release with photos, etc.
State and national household concentrations of PM2.5 from solid cookfuel use: Results from measurements and modeling in India for estimation of the global burden of disease. Environmental Health 2013, 12:77. Kalpana Balakrishnan, et al.
Background: Previous global burden of disease (GBD) estimates for household air pollution (HAP) from solid cookfuel use were based on categorical indicators of exposure. Recent progress in GBD methodologies that use integrated–exposure–response (IER) curves for combustion particles required the development of models to quantitatively estimate average HAP levels experienced by large populations. Such models can also serve to inform public health intervention efforts. Thus, we developed a model to estimate national household concentrations of PM2.5 from solid cookfuel use in India, together with estimates for 29 states.
Methods: We monitored 24-hr household concentrations of PM2.5, in 617 rural households from 4 states in India on a cross-sectional basis between November 2004 and March 2005. We then, developed log-linear regression models that predict household concentrations as a function of multiple, independent household level variables available in national household surveys and generated national / state estimates using The Indian National Family and Health Survey (NFHS 2005).
Results: The measured mean 24-hr concentration of PM2.5 in solid cookfuel using households ranged from 163 μg/m3(95% CI: 143,183; median 106; IQR: 191) in the living area to 609 μg/m3 (95% CI: 547,671; median: 472; IQR: 734) in the kitchen area. Fuel type, kitchen type, ventilation, geographical location and cooking duration were found to be significant predictors of PM2.5 concentrations in the household model. k-fold cross validation showed a fair degree of correlation (r = 0.56) between modeled and measured values. Extrapolation of the household results by state to all solid cookfuel-using households in India, covered by NFHS 2005, resulted in a modeled estimate of 450 μg/m3 (95% CI:318,640) and 113 μg/m3 (95% CI: 102,127) , for national average 24-hr PM2.5 concentrations in the kitchen and living areas respectively.
Conclusions: The model affords substantial improvement over commonly used exposure indicators such as“percent solid cookfuel use” in HAP disease burden assessments, by providing some of the first estimates of national average HAP levels experienced in India. Model estimates also add considerable strength of evidence for framing and implementation of intervention efforts at the state and national levels.
Estimating Willingness to Pay for Improved Stoves in Rural China Using Averting Behavior Method, 2013. Fei Yu, Asian Development Bank
Indoor air pollution (IAP) is a leading health risk factor for rural households in developing countries (Ezzati, et al, 2002). The combination of heavy reliance on solid fuel (biomass and coal) and low efficiency stoves, together with poor ventilation, results in dangerous levels of pollutants in the form of gases and suspended particulates (Smith, 1999). It accounts for more than 500,000 deaths annually in China, and ranks as the fourth most important cause of loss of a healthy life (DALYs) in developing countries (Ezzati and Baris ed. 2007). Women and children are particularly affected by IAP, as normally they are in the cooking area or home environment much longer than other family members. During 2002-2006, the World Bank and Government of China tested affordable household energy technologies and behavioral interventions designed to substantially reduce IAP and exposure to it and, thereby, to lower the associated health risks (Ezzati and Baris ed, 2007).
This paper uses the household level data collected during the World Bank/Chinese Government project to estimate rural households’ willingness to pay for improved stoves to avoid health risks due to indoor air pollution. The estimates indicate how household demographics, income, education, and health history affect households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for improved stoves using a probit model. Presence of children 5 and younger and participation in health education activities are major factors associated with greater WTP for improved stoves. These estimates appear to be a first for determining WTP for averting IAP related health risks in rural China.
Indoor air pollution and child health in India, 2013. UNICEF
In India indoor air pollution is among the most serious threats to the health of children under five years. TERI has actively highlighted the risks associated with indoor air pollution and advocated the adoption of cleaner and sustainable alternatives. Nearly 82% of pregnant women in rural India are exposed to biomass-related indoor air pollution, which increases the risk of low birth weight.
India derives the bulk of its cooking energy needs from biomass solid fuels, such as twigs, wood, shrubs, crop residue or cow dung and utilize crude combustion apparatus cook stoves. The burning of biomass fuels releases various indoor air pollutants, like particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds. According to the 2001 national census, 82.5% of rural Indian households used biomass as cooking fuel, and the National Family Health Survey in 2005-6 provided similar rates.
USAID TRAction – Call for abstracts on household air pollution
The USAID Translating Research into Action (TRAction) Project, which supports implementation science to identify best practices and ensure that evidence can be applied in practice, is sponsoring a special issue of the Journal of Health Communication. The special issue will focus on behavior change communication (BCC) strategies related to improved cookstove and improved fuels research, and methods for sharing information to inform programs or policies.
Increased uptake and correct, consistent use of clean cookstoves and fuels involves substantial behavior change. Behavior change communication draws on a broad range of frameworks, strategies and tools including but not limited to communication, social marketing, community empowerment, and advocacy. This special issue will feature research that seeks to understand and evaluate the strategies and tools for effective BCC within four critical areas of clean cookstove and fuels research: 1) demand creation, 2) financing, 3) correct and consistent use, and 4) policies to enable scale-up. The issue will highlight what we know about BCC for clean cookstoves and improved fuels, lessons learned, remaining questions and new horizons for research in this area.
TRAction is currently seeking abstracts for commentaries, editorials, field reports, and research articles on the use of BCC approaches for improving the adoption and sustained use of improved cookstoves and/or better fuels. TRAction is specifically interested in research on clean cooking technologies that are proven to substantially reduce emissions and have the potential to result in positive health impacts. We welcome all submissions for consideration at this time.
To Apply: Please email an abstract of the proposed manuscript (200 words or less) to Kendra Williams (email@example.com). In the email cover letter, please indicate the type of submission (commentary, editorial, field report, or research article). For this special issue, we intend to select 6-8 research articles, 3-4 commentaries, 3-4 field reports, and 3-4 editorials. Research articles are expected to be 5,000 words or less, and commentaries, field reports, and editorials should be 2,000 words or less, excluding abstracts, charts, tables, and references. All submissions will be reviewed by the special issue editors and will be sent out for peer review if appropriate.
- Abstract Submission Deadline - January 3, 2013 Selected abstracts will be notified by January 20
- Manuscript Submission Deadline – April/May 2014 (TBD)
- Peer Review Deadline (to be initiated by TRAction) – June 2014
- Revised Article Submission Deadline – July 2014
- Anticipated Publication Date – December 2014
Factors influencing the large-scale uptake by households of cleaner and more efficient household energy technologies
Factors influencing the large-scale uptake by households of cleaner and more efficient household energy technologies, 2013.
Puzzolo E, Stanistreet D, Pope D, Bruce N, Rehfuess E. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.
Abstract – The main objective of this systematic review was to describe and assess the importance of different enabling and/or limiting factors that have been found to influence the large-scale uptake by households of cleaner and more efficient household energy technologies. These comprise five intervention areas: ICS and four clean fuels, i.e. liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), biogas, solar cookers and alcohol fuels.
More specifically, the systematic review: (i) provides a framework consisting of seven domains of factors influencing large-scale uptake, distinguishing between short-term adoption and longer-term sustained use; (ii) gives a summary of existing knowledge relating to each of these domains, including interpretation of data with respect to equity; (iii) outlines a proposal for a tool to facilitate implementation of these findings in programme planning, and (iv) sets an agenda for essential primary research to better understand how policies and programmes to promote cleaner and more efficient household energy technologies must be designed in order to be successful.
For all five types of intervention, a broad range of factors were identified across seven domains which include: (i) Fuel and technology characteristics, (ii) Household and setting characteristics, (iii) Knowledge and perceptions, (iv) Financial, tax and subsidy aspects, (v) Market development, (vi) Regulation, legislation and standards, and (vii) Programmatic and policy mechanisms. Rather than presenting these factors as discrete enablers and barriers, the systematic review suggests that these can most usefully be seen as operating on a spectrum, so that when present or satisfactory they are enabling, and vice versa.
In terms of relative importance, while factors such as meeting household needs, fuel savings, higher income levels, effective financing and facilitative government action seem critical and necessary for success, none is sufficient in its own right to guarantee adoption and sustained use, and all those relevant to a given setting need to be assessed. Accordingly, these are described as ‘necessary but not sufficient’. The nature of the available evidence does not support a more formal prioritisation of factors, and the relevance of most will vary according to context (setting, fuel and technology); indeed some are very specific to fuel type, especially for biogas and solar cookers.
Consistency across different types of evidence, countries and settings supports the robustness of the findings and the general relevance of individual factors. Findings from this review draw on experience from some large-scale programmes including the Indian and Chinese national improved stove programmes, the national mega-conversion from kerosene to LPG in Indonesia and the Brazilian LPG experience, but mainly stem from much smaller-scale projects and programmes.
November 21, 2013 – Winrock/EPA webinar – Key Factors Influencing Adoption
Do you want to learn more about which characteristics of technologies, fuels and households have been shown to affect adoption of cleaner, more efficient cookstoves and fuels? Have you wondered about the extent to which financing, market development or government regulation and standards affect household energy technology uptake?
If so, register today for the Winrock and U.S. EPA-organized webinar “Key Factors Influencing Adoption” taking place next Thursday, November 21st at 11:00 a.m. Eastern Standard Time.
Dr. Elisa Puzzolo from the World Health Organization and Dr. Debbi Stanistreet from The University of Liverpool will present findings from the recently released systematic review “Factors influencing the large-scale uptake by households of cleaner and more efficient household energy technologies
This review describes and assesses the importance of different enabling and limiting factors that have been found to influence the large-scale uptake by households of cleaner and more efficient household energy technologies. These comprise 5 intervention areas: improved solid fuel cookstoves (ICS) and 4 clean fuels, i.e., liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), biogas, solar cookers and alcohol fuels. In total the review selected 101 eligible studies across Asia, Africa and Latin America. Findings draw on experience from some large-scale programs including the Indian and Chinese national improved stove programs, the national mega-conversion from kerosene to LPG in Indonesia and the Brazilian LPG experience, but mainly stem from much smaller-scale projects and initiatives.
Webinar participation is free. For the web portion, a high-speed internet connection is required. A dedicated phone line is required to listen to audio (the web portion does not include audio capacity). Additional log-in and call-in information will be provided upon registration.
Indoor Air. 2013 Oct;23(5):379-86.
Indoor exposure to particulate matter and the incidence of acute lower respiratory infections among children: a birth cohort study in urban Bangladesh.
Gurley ES, Homaira N, Salje H, Ram PK, Haque R, Petri W, Bresee J, Moss WJ, Breysse P, Luby SP, Azziz-Baumgartner E.
icddr,b; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Approximately half of all children under two years of age in Bangladesh suffer from an acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) each year. Exposure to indoor biomass smoke has been consistently associated with an increased risk of ALRI in young children.
Our aim was to estimate the effect of indoor exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5 ) on the incidence of ALRI among children in a low-income, urban community in Bangladesh. We followed 257 children through two years of age to determine their frequency of ALRI and measured the PM2.5 concentrations in their sleeping space. Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between ALRI and the number of hours per day that PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 μg/m(3) , adjusting for known confounders.
Each hour that PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 μg/m(3) was associated with a 7% increase in incidence of ALRI among children aged 0-11 months (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14), but not in children 12-23 months old (adjusted IRR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92-1.09).
Results from this study suggest that reducing indoor PM2.5 exposure could decrease the frequency of ALRI among infants, the children at highest risk of death from these infections.
Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Nov 1.
Emission Characteristics of Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds in Cow Dung Combustion.
Park D, Barabad ML, Lee G, Kwon SB, Cho Y, Lee D, Cho K, Lee K. Eco-Transport Research Division, Korea Railroad Research Institute , Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do 437-757, Republic of Korea.
Biomass fuel is used for cooking and heating, especially in developing countries. Combustion of biomass fuel can generate high levels of indoor air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
This study characterized PM and VOC emissions from cow dung combustion in a controlled experiment. Dung from grass-fed cows was dried and combusted using a dual-cone calorimeter. Heat fluxes of 10, 25, and 50 kW/m2 were applied. The concentrations of PM and VOCs were determined using a dust spectrometer and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively. PM and VOC emission factors were much higher for the lower heat flux, implying a fire ignition stage.
When the heat flux was 50 kW/m2, the CO2 emission factor was highest and the PM and VOC emission factors were lowest. Particle concentrations were highest in the 0.23-0.3 μm size range at heat fluxes of 25 and 50 kW/m2. Various toxic VOCs, including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene, and toluene, were detected at high concentrations.
Although PM and VOC emission factors at 50 kW/m2 were lower, they were high enough to cause extremely high indoor air pollution. The characteristics of PM and VOC emissions from cow dung combustion indicated potential health effects of indoor air pollution in developing countries.
J Asthma. 2013 Oct 28.
The effect of biomass fuel exposure on the prevalence of asthma in adults in India – review of current evidence.
Trevor J, Antony V, Jindal SK. Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham , Birmingham, AL , USA and.
Introduction: The combustion of biomass fuels is a major source of respiratory disease among individuals in the developing world. Over two million people world-wide rely on biomass fuels to supply their household energy needs with an estimated 1.6 million deaths annually being attributable to biomass smoke exposure. As a developing country, India relies heavily on the use of solid fuels as a source of energy. These materials supply 75% of the country’s domestic energy need and are attributed as the cause of over 600 000 deaths annually. Diseases such as chronic bronchitis and acute lower respiratory tract infections are strongly correlated to biomass smoke exposure. While not as strongly correlated, accumulating evidence suggests that asthma prevalence may be related to solid fuel smoke.
Methods: This review examines the current literature linking biomass smoke exposure to the reporting of asthma symptoms. A PubMed search was performed using key terms biomass, asthma, India and respiratory disease. Preference was given to recent articles that surveyed the adult population within India.
Results: The reviewed articles showed an increased odds ratio for reporting a diagnosis of asthma or symptoms consistent with asthma following biomass smoke exposure. While the literature supports a strong association between household air pollution and the development of chronic bronchitis and acute lower respiratory tract infections in India, this review establishes a more firm relationship between reported asthma symptoms and biomass smoke exposure.
Conclusion: The exposure to biomass fuel smoke results in respiratory diseases in developing countries. Among these diseases, asthma appears to be a preventable pulmonary pathology that is associated with household air pollution. Measures to reduce exposure may decrease the burden of disease which could help advance social and economic progress in these nations. Further research and out-reach efforts are needed to reduce the total burden of lung diseases, including asthma, across the developing world. This reduction could save millions of dollars annually and lower morbidity and mortality in the affected populations.
Biomass smoke in Burkina Faso: what is the relationship between particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and kitchen characteristics?
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013 Oct 4.
Biomass smoke in Burkina Faso: what is the relationship between particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and kitchen characteristics?
Yamamoto SS, Louis VR, Sié A, Sauerborn R. Institute of Public Health, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany
In Burkina Faso where cooking with biomass is very common, little information exists regarding kitchen characteristics and their impact on air pollutant levels. The measurement of air pollutants such as respirable particulate matter (PM10), an important component of biomass smoke that has been linked to adverse health outcomes, can also pose challenges in terms of cost and the type of equipment needed. Carbon monoxide could potentially be a more economical and simpler measure of air pollution.
The focus of this study was to first assess the association of kitchen characteristics with measured PM10 and CO levels and second, the relationship of PM10 with CO concentrations, across these different kitchen characteristics in households in Nouna, Burkina Faso. Twenty-four-hour concentrations of PM10 (area) were measured with portable monitors and CO (area and personal) estimated using color dosimeter tubes. Data on kitchen characteristics were collected through surveys. Most households used both wood and charcoal burned in three-stone and charcoal stoves. Mean outdoor kitchen PM10 levels were relatively high (774 μg/m3, 95 % CI 329-1,218 μg/m3), but lower than indoor concentrations (Satterthwaite t value, -6.14; p < 0.0001). In multivariable analyses, outdoor kitchens were negatively associated with PM10 (OR = 0.06, 95 % CI 0.02-0.16, p value <0.0001) and CO (OR = 0.03, 95 % CI 0.01-0.11, p value <0.0001) concentrations.
Strong area PM10 and area CO correlations were found with indoor kitchens (Spearman’s r = 0.82, p < 0.0001), indoor stove use (Spearman’s r = 0.82, p < 0.0001), and the presence of a smoker in the household (Spearman’s r = 0.83, p < 0.0001). Weak correlations between area PM10 and personal CO levels were observed with three-stone (Spearman’s r = 0.23, p = 0.008) and improved stoves (Spearman’s r = 0.34, p = 0.003). This indicates that the extensive use of biomass fuels and multiple stove types for cooking still produce relatively high levels of exposure, even outdoors, suggesting that both fuel subsidies and stove improvement programs are likely necessary to address this problem. These findings also indicate that area CO color dosimeter tubes could be a useful measure of area PM10 concentrations when levels are influenced by strong emission sources or when used in indoors. The weaker correlation observed between area PM10 and personal CO levels suggests that area exposures are not as useful as proxies for personal exposures, which can vary widely from those recorded by stationary monitors.
Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Nov 4.
USE OF REMOTELY REPORTING ELECTRONIC SENSORS FOR ASSESSING USE OF WATER FILTERS AND COOKSTOVES IN RWANDA.
Thomas EA, Barstow CK, Abadie Rosa G, Majorin F, Clasen TF.
Remotely reporting electronic sensors offer the potential to reduce bias in monitoring use of environmental health interventions. In the context of a five-month randomized controlled trial of household water filters and improved cookstoves in rural Rwanda, we collected data from intervention households on product compliance using (i) monthly surveys and direct observations by community health workers and environmental health officers, and (ii) sensor-equipped filters and cookstoves deployed for about two weeks in each household. The adoption rate interpreted by the sensors varied from the household reporting. 96.5% of households reported primarily using the intervention stove, while the sensors interpreted 73.2% use. 90.2% of households reported using the intervention filter regularly, while the sensors interpreted no more than 90.2%. The sensor-collected data estimated use to be lower than conventionally-collected data both for water filters (approximately 36% less water volume per day) and cookstoves (approximately 40% fewer uses per week). An evaluation of intra-household consistency in use suggests that households are not using their filters or stoves on an exclusive basis, and may be both drinking untreated water at times and using other stoves (“stove-stacking”). These results provide additional evidence that surveys and direct observation may exaggerate compliance with household-based environmental interventions.
Addressing household air pollution : a case study in rural Madagascar, 2013.
Dasgupta, Susmita; Martin, Paul; Samad, Hussain A. World Bank.
Household air pollution is the second leading cause of disease in Madagascar, where more than 99 percent of households rely on solid biomass, such as charcoal, wood, and crop waste, as the main cooking fuel. Only a limited number of studies have looked at the emissions and health consequences of cook stoves in Africa. This paper summarizes an initiative to monitor household air pollution in two towns in Madagascar, with a stratified sample of 154 and 184 households. Concentrations of fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide in each kitchen were monitored three times using UCB Particle Monitors and GasBadge Pro Single Gas Monitors. The average concentrations of both pollutants significantly exceeded World Health Organization guidelines for indoor exposure.
A fixed-effect panel regression analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of various factors, including fuel (charcoal, wood, and ethanol), stove (traditional and improved ethanol), kitchen size, ventilation, building materials, and ambient environment. Judging by its effect on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide, ethanol is significantly cleaner than biomass fuels and, for both pollutants, a larger kitchen significantly improves the quality of household air. Compared with traditional charcoal stoves, improved charcoal stoves were found to have no significant impact on air quality, but the improved wood stove with a chimney was effective in reducing concentrations of carbon monoxide in the kitchen, as was ventilation.
On Thin Ice: How Cutting Pollution Can Slow Warming and Save Lives, 2013.
A Joint Report of The World Bank and The International Cryosphere Climate Initiative
Excerpts – This report is about how climate change is affecting the cryosphere—those snow-capped mountain ranges, brilliant glaciers, and vast permafrost regions on which all of us depend. It lays out 14 specific measures we could take by 2030 to reduce short-lived climate pollutants and slow the melting of ice and snow that must stay frozen to keep oceans and global temperatures from rising even faster. Action to stabilize the cryosphere will also save lives now. By mitigating short-lived climate pollutants such as black carbon and methane, we will improve health in thousands of communities, many of them in the developing world.
If we quickly scale up just four cleaner cooking solutions, for example, we could save one million human lives every year. That is one-quarter of the mostly women and children who die from exposure from indoor and outdoor cooking smoke annually. The benefits would multiply because, with cleaner air, cities become more productive, child health improves, and more food can be grown. All the while, we would reduce the warming impact that black carbon from these cookstoves has on polar and mountain regions, especially in the Himalayas.
The modeling in this report shows a special need to focus more urgently on cookstove pollution.
Is Household Air Pollution a Risk Factor for Eye Disease? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(11)
Sheila K. West, et al.
In developing countries, household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the inefficient burning of coal and biomass (wood, charcoal, animal dung and crop residues) for cooking and heating has been linked to a number of negative health outcomes, mostly notably respiratory diseases and cancers. While ocular irritation has been associated with HAP, there are sparse data on adverse ocular outcomes that may result from acute and chronic exposures. We consider that there is suggestive evidence, and biological plausibility, to hypothesize that HAP is associated with some of the major blinding, and painful, eye conditions seen worldwide. Further research on this environmental risk factor for eye diseases is warranted.
Can Improved Cooking Stoves Work? The Nepal Chulo Experience, 2013.
D DWANDE, et al.
What motivates rural households to switch from older cooking methods to newer, more improved, ones? Improved cooking stoves (ICS) technology has demonstrated capacity to reduce health hazards from smoke inhalation, especially for mothers and young children in poor rural households. Additional advantages such as fuel economy are also possible. However, policies encouraging rural households to switch have met with little success. Initially enthusiastic acceptance has seldom led to long-term adoption. Possibly, faulty policy implementation is to blame, but it is likely that policymakers have not come to terms with the fact that adopting the ICS requires changing generations-old behavior.
This paper contributes in two ways, using a primary survey of rural households in Nepal. It first uses tests of independence to investigate sources of resistance to adopting the ICS by associating characteristics of the heads of households with their adoption decision. Association of self-reported health outcomes with adoption is also examined. Second, the paper sheds light on the role of economic benefits such as fuel economy, fuel costs, and government subsidy and their association with ICS adoption. Nepal is an appropriate setting for studying ICS adoption, for its plentiful wood supply has deemed the traditional stove or chulo the status quo cooking technology. Nepal’s government also has a history of experimenting with ICS adoption. Some lessons from the Nepal experience are useful for other countries as they seek to change the behavior of their rural households.
How Different are Social Business Firms from Social Entrepreneurial Firms: A Comparison of Two Successful Cases, 2013.
Ezgi Yildirim Saatçi
“Social” preceded managerial terminologies are becoming popular and elevated. Social entrepreneurship, social business, social innovation, social change management and corporate social responsibility can be attributed as examples of popular buzzwords. As popular as they are, vindicate and precise distinguishing factors of these concepts are not commonly affirmed. In this paper, with an inclination to enlighten this vagueness, two successful cases are detailed i.e. Husk Power Systems and Grameen Shakti.
Husk Power Systems represent an example of the social entrepreneurial firm which has been chosen as a social entrepreneur of the year 2008 by Fortune Magazine. On the other hand, Grameen Shakti vegetates for social business which was founded and supported by Grameen Bank that has won Nobel peace prize jointly with its founder Prof. Muhammad Yunus in 2006.
In the analysis part “Strategic Business Canvas” with labels of value propositions, channels, customer segments, customer relationships, key partners, key resources, key activities, cost structure and revenue streams is used. Besides that social impact, innovation and strategy dimensions of organisations are also detailed and contrasted in the concluding remarks.
Scaling Adoption of Clean Cooking Solutions through Women’s Empowerment: A Resource Guide, 2013.
C Hart, G Smith. Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves.
This Resource Guide builds off of existing resources while compiling and analyzing a wide-variety of case studies, tools, and stories that outline practical, actionable methods and best practices for scaling adoption of clean cooking solutions through women’s empowerment. While several reports exist that analyze and investigate the importance of effectively integrating women into energy initiatives through gender mainstreaming practices, there has not yet been a practical guide on how to specifically integrate women
throughout the clean cooking sector.*
Research for the Resource Guide consisted of a careful examination of other sectors’ success in including women throughout their value chains to increase their bottom lines and impacts. Within this, the economic benefits of empowering women, and the related benefits for their families, communities, and national economies were also evaluated. Over 50 reports on gender, gender mainstreaming, women’s empowerment, and energy were collated, summarized, and analyzed. Additionally, training manuals, handbooks, and guides on relevant topics were extensively reviewed and compared to extract critical strategies, lessons, practices, and themes that can be applied in the clean cooking sector.