Indoor Air Quality Updates
WELCOME TO THE INDONESIA CLEAN COOKSTOVES ALLIANCE (ICCA)
Indonesia Clean Cookstoves Alliance (ICCA) was established to support the Indonesia Clean Stove Initiative (CSI), a program initiated by the Directorate of Bioenergy, Directorate General of New, Renewable Energy, and Energy Conservation,Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. ICCA will serve as a platform, for all parties concerned with the issue of Household Air Pollution, to exchange and share information, knowledge, experience, technology, in the effort of scaling up household access to clean cooking solutions. ICCA was formed with support from the World Bank and the Directorate of Bioenergy, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, and with funding support provided by the Australian International Development Aid (AusAid) and Asia Sustainable and Alternative Energy Program (ASTAE).
Household Ventilation May Reduce Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants for Prevention of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population. PLoS One, July 2014.
Zi-Yi Jin, et al.Background - Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. Objectives - To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. Methods - A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results - Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj= 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. Conclusions - A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.
Success of Alcohol Based Cooking Fuels for Reducing Household Air Pollution. APHA Annual Meeting, Tuesday, November 18, 2014 : 10:50 AM – 11:10 AM.
Megan Graham, MPH , School of Public Health/Center for Healthy Development, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA
Gulce Askin , Project Gaia Inc., Gettysburg, PA
Brady Luceno , Project Gaia Inc., Gettysburg, PA
Background. Over 3 billion people worldwide rely on biomass such as firewood, charcoal, or dung for their cooking needs. The use of biomass fuels emits high levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) leading to pneumonia, acute lower respiratory infections, COPD, lung cancer, heart disease, and blindness. It is estimated that household air pollution (HAP) causes 3.5 million premature deaths annually. HAP is a top risk factors for ill-health globally and it is crucial to explore new cookstove and fuel interventions that reduce the burden of HAP and improve the health of women and children.
Research: This presentation explores the use of ethanol cooking fuel in Madagascar to reduce exposure to HAP and related illness. As part of a three year World Bank funded study, two communities in Madagascar (coastal and highland) were provided ethanol cookstoves. Following the intervention, ethanol cookstoves significantly reduced women’s exposure to CO in both regions (75% highland; 54% coastal) and children’s exposure by 60% in the highland location (non-significant reduction by 14% coastal). Households with ethanol stoves saw a significant reduction of headaches (93%) and eye irritation (72%) among women and a significant reduction in adult burns (74%) and child burns (64%). Modeling future uptake of ethanol stoves and pollutant reduction demonstrated a relative risk reduction for ALRIs among children, COPD among adults, and ischemic heart disease. The ethanol stove saved an average of 2.5 hours per day of cooking over traditional fuels. No other stove examined saw significant HAP reductions need to improve health.
Conclusion: Alcohol fuels and cookstoves have the potential to significantly reduce HAP and illness that may result from HAP exposure. Additional solutions other than solid fuel cookstoves are needed to make a significant health impact.
Addressing Refugee Health and Safety through Gender-Specific Interventions: Clean Ethanol Stoves Fuel as a Tool for Protection and Prevention
Addressing Refugee Health and Safety through Gender-Specific Interventions: Clean Ethanol Stoves Fuel as a Tool for Protection and Prevention. APHA Annual Conference – Monday, November 17, 2014 : 1:00 PM – 1:15 PM
Authors: Gulce Askin , Project Gaia Inc., Gettysburg, PA
Brady Luceno , Project Gaia Inc., Gettysburg, PA
Megan Graham, MPH , Center for Healthy Development; Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA
Household energy use is an urgent public health issue in humanitarian settings where resources are extremely scarce. Reliance on traditional biomass fuels (firewood, dung and charcoal) for all cooking needs is common. The environmental impact of fuelwood gathering and overharvesting is significant. Women and girls are disproportionately affected by the health burdens of polluting fuels.
Thus, a gender-specific approach may be required for the implementation of successful household energy projects. Two dimensions of health must be considered; refugee security and the prevention of Gender Based Violence during fuel collection, and the environmental health reduction of exposure to pollutants during indoor cooking.
Gaia Association, an implementing partner to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) implements a clean ethanol cookstove and fuel program in the Jijiga Somali camps in Ethiopia. The program has made significant advancements in refugee health and security. These results were reflected in surveys and narrative accounts collected from 2005-2009, as well as ongoing monitoring and evaluation. Ethanol stoves save on average two fuel collection trips per week providing significant timesavings over firewood. Indoor air pollution monitoring showed that alcohol stoves achieved an 85% reduction of Particulate Matter (PM) emissions (99% in the lab) over traditional wood fires and a 93% reduction of CO in the refugee camps (93% in the lab).
A (new) cultural turn toward solar cooking—Evidence from six case studies across India and Burkina Faso
A (new) cultural turn toward solar cooking—Evidence from six case studies across India and Burkina Faso. Energy Research & Social Science, Volume 2, June 2014, Pages 49–58.
Author: Pia Piroschka Otte.
Solar cooking can generally be described as a way to use the sun’s energy for cooking. Despite its multiple benefits as a clean, modular, simple source of energy, the implementation of solar cookers is not as widespread as one would hope. In the literature it is argued that solar cookers are not adopted because they are often considered to be culturally disruptive. This paper shines a new light on the cultural dynamics of cooking by showcasing the social acceptance of solar cookers. Six cases are presented from two different countries, Burkina Faso and India where a particular type of solar cooker (Scheffler reflectors) was installed among bakeries, shea nut butter producers, and steam kitchens. These cases demonstrate how cultural factors can be adoption-enhancing or limiting in different contexts. In essence, the paper finds that solar cookers are successfully implemented where they conform to underlying cultural factors. The study concludes that by implementing solar cookers as part of an existing socio-cultural framework, solar cookers move away from an image of a mere foreign technology to an integrated part of the target society.
Non-Invasive Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in Rural Indian Woman Exposed to Different Cooking Fuel Smoke
Non-Invasive Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in Rural Indian Woman Exposed to Different Cooking Fuel Smoke. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 2014.
Authors: Vinod Joon, et al.
In India more than 70% of the population use biomass fuels for cooking. Women, who traditionally carry out the cooking in this culture, experience the highest lifetime Carbon Monoxide (CO) exposure due to the burning of such fuels in traditional stoves. CO levels were measured in this study in the breathing zone atmosphere of cooks during the cooking cycle, using different fuels such as LPG, wood, crop residues and dung cakes, in a rural area of the National Capital Region (NCR) of India. The exhaled breath CO levels of the non-smoking female cooks were also measured before and after cooking. A high degree of correlation was obtained between CO levels during the cooking cycle and exhaled breath CO levels. The study suggests that the enhanced exhaled breath CO levels of the cooks were largely due to the burning of biomass fuels. A high value of R2 (0.79) was obtained during the model fitting exercise, which suggests the usefulness of fuel-type and cooking location (i.e., indoor/outdoor) as explanatory variables for predicting exhaled breath CO levels among cooks. The prevalence of CO poisoning symptoms was found to be significantly higher among the biomass fuel users. The study demonstrates the potential of the exhaled breath CO technique as a non-invasive, easy and economical alternative for predicting CO exposure due to the burning of biomass fuel in rural settings, where it may not always be possible to collect CO exposure data using the conventional invasive techniques.
Aug 18 NIEHS Symposium on Assessing Exposures and Health Effects Related to Indoor Biomass Fuel Burning
- August 18, 2014
- 8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. EST
Location: David P. Rall Building in the Rodbell Auditorium
NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC
The burning of solid fuels (e.g., wood, charcoal, dung) for cooking and heat results in a significant global health burden with over 4 million premature deaths per year attributed to indoor air pollution from inefficient use of solid fuels. Progress on this important public health challenge requires a concerted cross-disciplinary effort involving exposure scientists, toxicologists, epidemiologists, engineers, and public policy experts. This symposium will bring together researchers working in the area of indoor biomass fuel burning emissions and health effects to discuss the latest science, policy, and future directions.
- Federal Register Notice – published June 19, 2014
- Draft Agenda
- Register to attend in-person
- Register to view the webcast (required to view webcast)
A link to workshop materials will be posted on this page as they become available.
Contact Information for meeting:
Cynthia Rider, Ph.D., DABT
P.O. Box 12233, MD K2-12
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
T: (919) 541-9834 (voice)
eFAX: (301) 480-3272
Time to Act to Reduce Short-lived Climate Pollutants (SCLP), 2014. UNEP.
Large-scale implementation of these SCLP measures by 2030 would likely prevent 2.4 (0.7–4.6) million premature deaths from outdoor air pollution annually and avoid annual crop yield losses of over 50 (30–135) million tons, which represents an increase of a up to 4% of the total annual global crop production. Implementation could also slow down the warming expected by 2050 by about 0.5°C (UNEP & WMO 2011) – and by about 0.7°C in the Arctic by 2040 – and could have significant regional climate benefits in sensitive regions of the world, reducing disruption of rainfall patterns and slowing the melting of some glaciers (WB & ICCI 2013). Action to reduce the climate impacts of HFCs, such as using hydrocarbon refrigerants in domestic refrigerators, freezers and small air conditioning units, could deliver additional near term climate change mitigation benefits.
Results-Based Financing for Clean Cookstoves in Uganda, 2014. IMC Worldwide for the Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solutions (ACCES).
The fundamental idea behind results-based financing (RBF) is that payments to a service provider are made contingent on the delivery of a pre-agreed result, with achievement of the result being subject to independent verification. An RBF approach is feasible as part of a broad package of measures to scale up the efficient and clean cooking sector in Uganda – the larger goal being to achieve a range of benefits, including health, in coordination with the government and key stakeholders. Results-based incentives should be combined with robust monitoring and verification arrangements, institutional strengthening, and awareness-raising campaigns to support progress in the sector over time.
What are the main considerations for RBF design and implementation? The potential market size for a commercial market at scale is approximately 2.5 million households. This is based on 100 per cent of urban and 29 per cent of rural population being in the commercial segment for cookstoves and assumes an ICS penetration rate of 80 per cent. This translates into a yearly demand of 1.2 million ICS.5 The high-level estimate of the cost of implementing a full RBF scheme to achieve this market scale is between US$8 million and US$16 million plus administration costs. Scheme costs are based on an incentive level from US$5 to US$10 per ICS and a total number of incentive ICS sales of 3.6 million during the five years of the RBF intervention.6 In turn, this RBF level is based on an estimated7 current willingness to pay a price of below US$10 and an average charcoal ICS price of US$12 to US$20.
Biomass fuel use and the exposure of children to particulate air pollution in southern Nepal. Environ Int. May 2014.
D. Devakumar, et al.
The exposure of children to air pollution in low resource settings is believed to be high because of the common use of biomass fuels for cooking. We used microenvironment sampling to estimate the respirable fraction of air pollution (particles with median diameter less than 4 μm) to which 7–9 year old children in southern Nepal were exposed. Sampling was conducted for a total 2649 h in 55 households, 8 schools and 8 outdoor locations of rural Dhanusha. We conducted gravimetric and photometric sampling in a subsample of the children in our study in the locations in which they usually resided (bedroom/living room, kitchen, veranda, in school and outdoors), repeated three times over one year. Using time activity information, a 24-hour time weighted average was modeled for all the children in the study. Approximately two-thirds of homes used biomass fuels, with the remainder mostly using gas.
The exposure of children to air pollution was very high. The 24-hour time weighted average over the whole year was 168 μg/m3. The non-kitchen related samples tended to show approximately double the concentration in winter than spring/autumn, and four times that of the monsoon season. There was no difference between the exposure of boys and girls. Air pollution in rural households was much higher than the World Health Organization and the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nepal recommendations for particulate exposure.
Indoor Air Pollution due to Inadequate Ventilation and its Impact on Health among Children of Less Than Five Years in Eastern Nepal
Indoor Air Pollution due to Inadequate Ventilation and its Impact on Health among Children of Less Than Five Years in Eastern Nepal. Journal of Nobel Medical College > Vol 3, No 1 (2014)
Bijay Thapa, Nitendra Chaurasia
Introduction: According to WHO, half of the developing world’s population depend on biomass (wood, dung and agricultural residues) and coal for such basic needs as cooking and heating. The smoke produced from the burning of these solid fuels on open fires or traditional stoves is referred to as indoor air pollution. IAP increases the risk of COPD and of acute respiratory illness in childhood, the most important cause of death among children less than 5 years of age in developing countries.
Objectives: To find out the prevalence of IAP in terms of housing, overcrowding & ventilation. To assess the frequency, extent of biomass exposure and hazards on child health.
Materials and methods: The cross sectional study was carried out in the Urban area of Katahari V.D.C. 4,6,7,8 for the duration of 6 months from February to August 2013 among 200 households. Lottery method was used to choose the wards and households. Data were analyzed using percentages, proportions and statistical test (chi-square test).
Results: Due to excessive production of smoke and inadequate ventilation/chimney in the kitchen, such houses showed more prevalence of respiratory problems. Fifty percent of children were ill more than four times and 46% were seen at least twice. Almost all of them had experienced respiratory problems and 20% children were diagnosed with pneumonia in health facilities and treated. Ill ventilated kitchen, rooms along with dampness and absence of day light were the main factors contributing to the diseases comprising of 56%.
Clean break: Improved biomass stoves are not popular, people everywhere deserve modern cooking methods
Below is the link to a May 2014 Nature article on cookstoves and responses to the article from Kirk Smith, Kaysara Khatun and Brenton Ladd.
Clean break: Improved biomass stoves are not popular, people everywhere deserve modern cooking methods. Nature, May 29, 2014.
- Full text – http://www.nature.com/news/clean-break-1.15292
Excerpt – “It is time for a fundamental shift in strategy — one that moves people away from burning biomass entirely.”
Efforts could be redirected to providing people with the energy they most aspire to: not a stove designed by someone in the developed world to cook cleaner, but the actual stoves used in the developed world, which run on electricity or hydrocarbons such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
This is not an absurd goal. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that bringing electricity and clean-cooking facilities to every person on Earth by 2030 will cost US$49 billion a year. Although that is a considerable sum, the agency points to major commitments by Indonesia, Ghana and Nigeria to aggressively switch large portions of their population to cooking with LPG.
Where will all this new energy come from? It will require some additional consumption of fossil fuels, and that will increase the emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. But the extra pollution would be minimal at the global scale: the IEA estimates that it would boost CO2 emissions by just 0.7% above its base scenario.
Renewable sources should be able to supply a major fraction of the needed energy: electrical micro-grids that use agricultural waste, solar cells or wind turbines to provide energy are popping up, for instance. Clean-cooking programmes have an enduring appeal, just not for their intended users. It is time to rethink the approach.
Cookstoves: clean up fuel on two fronts, Nature, July 3, 2014- Kirk Smith.
Contrary to the impression you convey (see Nature 509, 533; 2014) biomass-burning cooking technology is advancing steadily. Stoves are now more efficient and emit much less smoke, and will remain popular as long as users can access biomass, such as wood and dung, at zero direct cost. Efforts must therefore continue to make clean fuels available and available fuels clean. In trials of new types of biomass-burning stove — including the trial covered by the 2012 report you mention, one factor contributing to the apparent negative outcome is promoters’ use of the term ‘improved’ to market new stoves, often without justification. This has led to the conclusion that the ‘improvements’ have not worked. Genuine improvements can stem only from systematic testing and assessment. Moreover, randomized controlled trials of health interventions need to follow strict criteria (see, for example, K. R. Smith et al. Lancet 378, 1717–1726; 2011).
This autumn, the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves in Washington DC and ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, are due to finalize the first health-based emissions standards for biomass stoves. These are informed by the World Health Organization’s upcoming Indoor Air Quality Guidelines. No longer will funders, non-governmental organizations, the private sector, the media and researchers have to rely on vague and unsubstantiated descriptors to judge stove performance.
Kirk R. Smith University of California, Berkeley, USA. email@example.com
Does Peer Use Influence Adoption of Efficient Cookstoves? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Uganda
Does Peer Use Influence Adoption of Efficient Cookstoves? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Uganda, 2014. Beltramo, Theresa, et al. The Center for Effective Global Action, UC Berkeley.
We examine the effect of peer usage on consumer demand for efficient cookstoves with a randomized controlled trial in rural Uganda. We testifthe neighbors of buyers who ordered and received a stove are more likely to purchase an efficient cookstove than the neighbors of buyers who ordered but have not yet received a stove. We find that neighbors of buyers who have experience with the stove are not detectably more likely to purchase a stove than neighbors of buyers who have not yet received their stove. We do find evidence of peer effects in opinions about efficient cookstoves. Knowing that a prominent member of the community has the efficient stove predicts 17–22 percentage points higher odds of strongly favoring the stove. But this more favorable opinion seemingly has no impact on purchase decisions.
A Recipe for Developing Cookstove Adoption and Impact Indices, 2014. Karen Troncoso. Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves.
The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves has identified the need to develop a set of tools to measure the results of clean cookstove implementation programs, based on a users’ perspective approach. This guide is intended to show how to evaluate the adoption and the impact of a clean cookstove in terms of the benefits perceived by the users of these technologies and is meant for a wide-variety of sector stakeholders, including practitioners (private sector players, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community-based organizations (CBOs), government agencies, etc.), donors, policymakers, development agencies, investors and academic institutions.
A Cross-Sectional Study of Household Biomass Fuel Use among a Peri-Urban Population in Malawi. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014 Jun 24.
Piddock KC1, Gordon SB, Ngwira A, Msukwa M, Nadeau G, Davis KJ, Nyirenda MJ, Mortimer K.
Corresponding Author: Kevin Mortimer, Email: Kevin.Mortimer@liverpool.ac.uk
Rationale: The Global Burden of Disease Study suggests almost 3.5 million people die as a consequence of household air pollution every year. Respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia in children are strongly associated with exposure to household air pollution. Smoke from burning biomass fuels for cooking, heating and lighting is the main contributor to high household air pollution levels in low-income countries like Malawi. A greater understanding of biomass fuel use in Malawi should enable us to address household air pollution associated communicable and non-communicable diseases more effectively.
Objectives: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of biomass fuel use and population demographics among adults in Blantyre, Malawi. Methods: We used GPS-enabled PDAs to collect data on location, age, sex, marital status, education, occupation and fuel use. We describe these data and explore associations between demographics and reported fuel type.
Measurements and Main Results: 16079 adults participated (nine households refused), median age 30, similar distribution of males and females, 60% married and 62% received secondary school education. The most commonly reported male and female occupation was ‘salaried employment’ (40.7%) and ‘petty trader and marketing’ (23.5%) respectively. Charcoal (81.5% of households), wood (36.5%) and electricity (29.1%) were the main fuels used at home. Only 3.9% of households used electricity exclusively. Lower educational and occupational attainment was associated with greater use of wood.
Conclusions: This large cross-sectional study has identified extensive use of biomass fuels in a typical sub-Saharan Africa peri-urban population in which women and people of lower socio-economic status are disproportionately affected. Biomass fuel use is likely to be a major driver of existing communicable respiratory disease and the emerging non-communicable disease (especially respiratory and cardiovascular) epidemic in this region. Our data will help inform the rationale for specific intervention studies and the development of appropriately targeted public health strategies to tackle this important and poverty-related global health problem.
Clean Cooking and Child Survival Workshop Meeting Report, May 2014. Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves.
Table of Contents
Overview and Objectives
Ongoing Clean Cooking and Child Survival Studies
The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study (GRAPHS)
Nepal Cookstove Intervention Trials
Improved Bioethanol Cookstoves and Pregnancy Outcome in Nigeria
Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) in Malawi
Intervention choice: selecting ‘clean’ and feasible interventions for evaluation
Case study: Kenya mixed methods approach to informing choice of interventions
Standards, testing, and the clean cooking catalog
Clean fuels: LPG, electricity and ethanol
Outcome assessment: practical lessons from the field
Exposure assessment: new innovations in methods and modeling and practical lessons from the field
New innovations in modeling
Personal and household emissions
Evidence from clean cookstoves and clean fuels: moving forward
Appendix 1: Clean Cooking and Child Survival Meeting Participants
The potential role of lung microbiota in lung cancer attributed to household coal burning exposures. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2014 Jun 3.
Hosgood HD 3rd, et al.
Bacteria influence site-specific disease etiology and the host’s ability to metabolize xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Lung cancer in Xuanwei, China has been attributed to PAH-rich household air pollution from burning coal. This study seeks to explore the role of lung microbiota in lung cancer among never smoking Xuanwei women and how coal burning may influence these associations. DNA from sputum and buccal samples of never smoking lung cancer cases (n = 8, in duplicate) and controls (n = 8, in duplicate) in two Xuanwei villages was extracted using a multi-step enzymatic and physical lysis, followed by a standardized clean-up. V1-V2 regions of 16S rRNA genes were PCR-amplified. Purified amplicons were sequenced by 454 FLX Titanium pyrosequencing and high-quality sequences were evaluated for diversity and taxonomic membership.
Bacterial diversity among cases and controls was similar in buccal samples (P = 0.46), but significantly different in sputum samples (P = 0.038). In sputum, Granulicatella (6.1 vs. 2.0%; P = 0.0016), Abiotrophia (1.5 vs. 0.085%; P = 0.0036), and Streptococcus (40.1 vs. 19.8%; P = 0.0142) were enriched in cases compared with controls. Sputum samples had on average 488.25 species-level OTUs in the flora of cases who used smoky coal (PAH-rich) compared with 352.5 OTUs among cases who used smokeless coal (PAH-poor; P = 0.047). These differences were explained by the Bacilli species (Streptococcus infantis and Streptococcus anginosus).
Our small study suggests that never smoking lung cancer cases have differing sputum microbiota than controls. Further, bacteria found in sputum may be influenced by environmental exposures associated with the type of coal burned in the home. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Humidity and gravimetric equivalency adjustments for nephelometer-based particulate matter measurements of emissions from solid biomass fuel use in cookstoves
Humidity and gravimetric equivalency adjustments for nephelometer-based particulate matter measurements of emissions from solid biomass fuel use in cookstoves. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Jun 19;11(6):6400-16. doi: 10.3390/ijerph110606400.
Soneja S, et al.
Great uncertainty exists around indoor biomass burning exposure-disease relationships due to lack of detailed exposure data in large health outcome studies. Passive nephelometers can be used to estimate high particulate matter (PM) concentrations during cooking in low resource environments. Since passive nephelometers do not have a collection filter they are not subject to sampler overload. Nephelometric concentration readings can be biased due to particle growth in high humid environments and differences in compositional and size dependent aerosol characteristics.
This paper explores relative humidity (RH) and gravimetric equivalency adjustment approaches to be used for the pDR-1000 used to assess indoor PM concentrations for a cookstove intervention trial in Nepal. Three approaches to humidity adjustment performed equivalently (similar root mean squared error). For gravimetric conversion, the new linear regression equation with log-transformed variables performed better than the traditional linear equation. In addition, gravimetric conversion equations utilizing a spline or quadratic term were examined.
We propose a humidity adjustment equation encompassing the entire RH range instead of adjusting for RH above an arbitrary 60% threshold. Furthermore, we propose new integrated RH and gravimetric conversion methods because they have one response variable (gravimetric PM2.5 concentration), do not contain an RH threshold, and is straightforward.
Issue 150 | June 20, 2014 | Focus on Gender Mainstreaming and Clean Cookstoves
This issue of WASHplus Weekly includes presentations, papers, and reports on “gender mainstreaming” – how to best empower women through cooking solutions and strategies for actively engaging women in the clean stove and fuel value chains.
The Kaleidoscope of Cooking—Understanding Cooking Behaviour and Stove Preferences in Rural India, 2014. GIZ. (Link)
This report identifies cooking technologies suitable for users living in diverse geographical and socio-economic backgrounds. It also includes suggestions from rural cooks on improving existing cookstoves to better meet their cooking requirements.
Gender Differences in Preferences, Intra-Household Externalities, and Low Demand for Improved Cookstoves, 2013. G Miller, National Bureau of Economic Research. (Link)
This paper explores whether public policy will be able to exploit gender differences in preferences to promote cooking technology adoption absent broader social change.
Hivos Policy Guidelines: Gender Mainstreaming in Hivos’ Domestic Biogas and Improved Cook Stove Programmes, 2013. E Nijland. (Link)
This paper contributes to the discussion on a gender mainstreaming policy and strategy for Hivos’ programs on renewable energy by focusing on two key sub-programs: improved cookstoves and domestic biogas.
Scaling Adoption of Clean Cooking Solutions through Women’s Empowerment: A Resource Guide, 2013. Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves and UK Department for International Development (DFID). (Link)
The guide is meant for a wide variety of sector stakeholders to increase their understanding of why women have a critical role to play and how to ensure they are included in each segment of the clean cooking value chain.
Putting the Cook Before the Stove—A User-Centred Approach to Understanding Household Energy Decision-Making, 2012. F Lambe, Stockholm Environmental Institute. (Link)
This study seeks to better understand the most important influences over household energy choices in order to identify practical ways to support communities shifting to cleaner energy use.
Gender and Energy for Sustainable Development: A Toolkit and Resource Guide—How Can Innovative Financing Schemes Expand Women’s Access to Energy, 2004. Sustainable Energy Program of UNDP and International Network on Gender and Sustainable Energy. (Link)
This toolkit is designed to help planners and practitioners integrate gender and energy considerations into development programs, including those focusing on energy improvements as well as other types of development programs.
Gender and Women’s Empowerment, Clean Cooking Forum, March 2013. Presentation by Corinne Hart, Program Manager, Gender and Markets, Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves. (Link)
Women Entrepreneurs and Improved Cook Stoves, Clean Cooking Forum, March 2013. Presentation by Iwan Baskoro, Program Director and Technical Advisor, Improved Cookstove Program, GERES. (Link)
Integrating Gender within World Bank Energy Sector and Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solutions (ACCES), Clean Cooking Forum, March 2013, Cambodia. Presentation by Katie Kennedy Freeman, Energy Specialist, ESMAP, World Bank. (Link)
Gender Mainstreaming, Clean Cooking Forum, March 2013. Presentation by Evelyne Heyi, German International Cooperation (GIZ), Energizing Development, Kenya Country Programme. (Link)
Gender in Clean Cooking Solutions: Experience of CRT/N, Clean Cooking Forum, March 2013. Presentation by Ganesh Ram Shrestha Executive Director Centre for Rural Technology, Nepal. (Link)
Webinar: Scaling Adoption of Clean Cooking Solutions through Women’s Empowerment, June 2014. Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, Energia, and Paradigm Project. (Link)
This webinar outlines how to use the “Scaling Adoption of Clean Cooking Solutions through Women’s Empowerment: Resource Guide” and features presentations from the organizations whose work is highlighted in the Guide.
The Women’s Carbon Standard, 2014. Women Organizing to Change in Agriculture and NRM (WOCAN). (Link)
The W+ Standard is a unique certification label developed by WOCAN to quantify and monetize the social capital created by women to recognize and reward their contributions to sustainable environments and communities. The standard is explained in a presentation entitled Ensuring Benefits to Mountain Women for Climate Change Adaptation.
WASHplus Weeklies will highlight topics such as Urban WASH, Indoor Air Pollution, Innovation, Household Water Treatment and Storage, Hand Washing, Integration, and more. If you would like to feature your organization’s materials in upcoming issues, please send them to Dan Campbell, WASHplus Knowledge Resources Specialist, firstname.lastname@example.org.